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International Journal of Advanced Research and Review (IJARR) is a peer reviewed, open access International Scientific ONLINE Journal dedicated for rapid publication (monthly) of high quality original research articles, case reports as well as review articles in all subjects. IJARR with an internationally recognized editorial board emphasizes on producing high quality research content.

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Latest Issue, April 2020

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Abstract:

The study set out to establish the effect of strategic change management on organizational performance of government owned entities. The study specific objectives are to examine the effect of strategic leadership change on organizational performance in government owned entities in Mombasa County; to investigate the effect of strategic cultural integration change on organizational performance in government owned entities in Mombasa County; to determine the effect of strategic corporate communication change on organizational performance in government owned entities in Mombasa County and to examine the effect of strategic resource allocation change on organizational performance in government owned entities in Mombasa County. This study was anchored on the following theories; Strategic Leadership theory, Resource-Based View theory, Strategic communication theory, Schein’s Model of Organizational Culture and theory of performance. The population of this study was the 47 government owned entities in Mombasa County and the target population for the study was made up of 141 managers comprising of senior managers, heads of department and line manager. A modified Likert scale questionnaire was developed and divided into three parts. A pilot study was carried out to refine the instrument. The quality and consistency of the study was further assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Data analysis was performed on a computer using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 25) for Windows. Data was presented in form of means, standard deviation, percentages and tables. Results show that considerable number of parastatals had strategic leaders who motivated employees toward organizational goals; parastatals maintained strong cultural integration and those employees from different departments in the parastatals shared a common perspective. Most of the government owned entities had strong corporate communication strategy in place which assets make organizations to run successfully and distributing these assets to an organization ought to be done carefully which distributing assets can be intense, but an organization can procure the assets they require suitably through cautious practice. The study concludes that strategic leadership change, strategic cultural integration change, strategic corporate communication change and strategic resource allocation change all had a positive effect on performance in government owned entities in Mombasa County. Therefore, this study recommends that Government owned entities (parastatals) must have strong visionary strategic management in place, also they must adopt organizational learning systems, upon which their culture should be founded; strong policies must also be instituted to support this development, further the employees must be fully sensitized on organizational core values. Government owned entities   should continuously seek to strengthen their communication strategies and that, it’s important to ensure that budgetary allocation was well forecasted, disbursements should be made timely.


Abstract:

The general objective of this study was to examine the effect of credit policy on loan performance of microfinance institutions. The specific objectives were; to determine the influence of Credit Procedures on loan performance of microfinance institution in Mogadishu Somalia, to find out the influence of Credit Standards on loan performance of microfinance institution in Mogadishu, Somalia, to establish the influence of Credit Information on loan performance of microfinance institution in Mogadishu, Somalia and to establish whether there is a significant relationship between credit limit and the loan performance in microfinance institutions in Mogadishu - Somalia. In Somalia the MFI sector has been growing rapidly which may have been caused by internal and external factors. Sound credit management is a prerequisite for a MFIs stability and continued profitability while credit delinquency is the cause of poor financial performance and condition. carefully documented credit policy should be able to able to serve the purposes of defining the organizations objective on credit extension, define the authority and responsibilities credit granting, specify training policy for credit professionals, monitor activities for credit staff and give performance targets and create a customer – company culture. Microfinance business is a new growing sector in Somalia and not much study that have been conducted to study the effect of credit policy on loan performance. The study addressed this gap by assessing the effect of credit policy on loan performance in microfinance institutions. This study took a descriptive survey design using a comprehensive questionnaire prepared by the researcher to help to obtain data in order to answer the research questions. The researcher used descriptive analysis, percentages and frequencies to analyze the results from the questionnaires using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 22). According to the findings, it was clear there was a positive correlation between the independent variables, credit policy procedure, Credit Policy Information, Credit Policy Standards, Credit Limit and dependent variable Loan Performance. The correlation analysis between each of the independent variables with the dependent variable (loan performance) produced the correlation coefficients of 0.833, 0.547, 0.704 and 0.785.704. From the findings it was established that loan extension is one of the primary sources of profitability to microfinance institutions however with high risk of having non performing loans if care is not taken before giving out loans. From the study findings it was concluded that microfinance institutions need to formulate credit policies to enable the management of credit risks and increase loan performance. 


3.CLIMATE COMFORT OF VERNACULAR HOUSES IN IRAN

Yalda Safaralipour, Ayda Safaralipour

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TURKEY

Abstract:

Technology development causes a human oriented design to be forgotten all over the world. In housing design, one of the important factors for human-oriented design is Climate comfort. Today similar architectural patterns in different climate regions in Iran, can't provide residents comfort. While vernacular housing architecture of Iran had different patterns for providing climate comfort in different regions. In this study we want to introduce Iran’s different climatic zones and their different vernacular architecture to show how they adopted their buildings to different climate conditions. 


Abstract:

Commercial banks have continued using various financial models for determining financial distress. However, commercial banks have not identified all the factors influencing financial performance and to which extent they influence financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. This study was focused on the influence of financial distress on financial performance for commercial banks regulated by Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) since they provide an important contribution to the economy. The study was prompted by the increased number of commercial banks in the recent past facing financial difficulties. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of capital distress, liquidity distress, operating inefficiency and assets quality distress on the performance of commercial banks in Kenya. To strengthen the conceptual framework the study adopted theories such as agency theory, liquidity theory, theory of efficient market hypothesis and buffer theory of capital adequacy. The study showed a diagrammatic representation of the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The target population was129 employees of commercial banks in Kenya. The sample size was99 employees of commercial banks in Kenya. A modified Likert scale questionnaire was developed and divided into three parts. A pilot study was carried out to refine the instrument. The quality and consistency of the study was further assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Data analysis was performed on a PC computer using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 23) for Windows. Analysis was done using frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviation, regression, correlation and the information generated was presented in form of graphs, charts and tables.   The study findings revealed that there was a positive correlation between capital distress, liquidity distress and operating inefficiency but asset quality distress had a negative correlation. The study concluded that capital distress, liquidity distress and asset quality have no significant effect on financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya.  Further, the study concluded that operational inefficiency has a significant effect on financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study recommends that commercial banks must consider using debt in their capital structure, non-current debt should be prioritized ahead of short-term debt. This recommendation is based on the finding that long term debt as measure of liquidity reduces the incidence of financial distress among commercial banks; Commercial banks should endeavor to employ more equity and less debt capital to finance their operations. This recommendation is based on the revelation that a reduction in financial leverage is a major recipe for corporate financial distress; The use of collaterals as security of granting loans should be further reviewed to reduce further incidence of bad debts and credit management should be viewed as part of a coordination group efforts made by all departments involved with customers to minimize bad debts and maximize profit instead of leaving it in the hands of the credit risk management department.


Abstract:

The thirteen common communicable diseases found in India are as follows: 1. Malaria 2. Typhoid 3. Hepatitis 4. Jaundice 5. Leptospirosis 6. Diarrhoeal Diseases 7. Amoebiasis 8. Cholera 9. Brucellosis 10. Hookworm Infection 11. Influenza 12. Filariasis 13. Tuberculosis.
Worldwide, the lack of clean water for drinking, cooking and washing, and the lack of sanitary waste disposal are to blame for over 12 million deaths a year, say researchers. About 1.2 billion people are at risk because they lack access to safe fresh water. India too has its share of infectious epidemics; and though mortality owing to these is decreasing, it is a significant part of the disease burden our society carries.
The disease burden is high in India, for obvious reasons like poor sanitation, lack of access to fresh water, poor hygiene, etc., which are common in the most developing countries. Though exact dependable statistics are not available, a good percentage of cases go unreported. Secondly, ‘infection is not recognized till it becomes symptomatic.


Abstract:

The study is on the influence of competitive strategy on performance of transport industry a case of Standard Gauge Railways. was guided by both general and specific objectives; to examine the effect of cost leadership strategy on performance of standard gauge railway; to determine the effect of differentiation strategy on performance of standard gauge railway; to evaluate the effect of focus strategy on performance of standard gauge railway and to determine the effect of pricing strategy on performance of standard gauge railway. To strengthen the conceptual framework the study used the following theories cost leadership theory, generic strategies theory, diamond theory of national advantage and pricing strategy theory. The study targets 192 Kenya Railways employees who are charged with the responsibility of strategic planning practice who are commercial managers, general managers and operations managers. The study sample size was129. The research design was cross-sectional. This was done using drop and pick method.  The findings were then be presented in figures and tables followed by explanations, discussions and recommendations for theory and practice as well as policy and for future studies. A modified Likert scale questionnaire was developed and divided into three parts. A pilot study will be carried out to refine the instrument. The quality and consistency of the study was further assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Data analysis was performed on a computer using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 25) for Windows. Data was presented in form of means, standard deviation, percentages and tables. The study concluded that cost leadership, differentiation strategy and focus strategy has no significant effect on organizational performance of standard gauge railways in Kenya. The study concluded that the standard gauge railways adopt cost leadership strategy as it has been found to have a positive significant effect on performance; while differentiation strategy ensured that the standard gauge railways products are distinctly identified, customer loyalty created leading to retention of customers and attraction of new ones. Therefore, SGR should produce products of different quantities for different markets. This would greatly increase their market base because they will be in a position to access transit customers who can transport bulk and the ordinary customers who can only afford small portions at a time; focus on more ways of dealing with the challenges is also needed for maximum profitability and that Standard gage railways should concentrate on products not offered by other transport companies. Products should be tailored to the market needs. Standard gauge railways should serve a specific niche in the market. Standard gauge railways should concentrate in one market segment that they should segment markets to better serve customers.


7.EFFECTS OF PLASTIC POLLUTION ON HUMAN

Sunidhi Kashyap and Sonika Kashyap

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RAJASTHAN

Abstract:

Plastic pollution, accumulation in the environment of synthetic plastic products to the point where they create problems for wildlife and their habitats as well as for human populations. In 1907 the invention of Bakelite brought about a revolution in materials by introducing truly synthetic plastic resins into world commerce. By the end of the 20th century, however, plastics were found to be persistent polluters of many environmental niches, from Mount Everest to the bottom of the sea. Whether being mistaken for food by animals, flooding low-lying areas by clogging drainage systems, or simply causing significant aesthetic blight, plastics have attracted increasing attention as a large-scale pollutant. There are different types of ways that plastic is dangerous for humans. Direct toxicity from plastics comes from lead, cadmium, and mercury. These toxins have also been found in many fish in the ocean, which is very dangerous for humans. Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) contained in some plastics, is a toxic carcinogen. Other toxins in plastics are directly linked to cancers, birth defects, immune system problems, and childhood developmental issues. To learn more on effects of plastics on humans visit the Ecology Center
Other types of toxic plastics are BPA or health-bisphenol-A, along with phthalates (mentioned above). Both of these are of great concern to human health. BPA is used in many things including plastic bottles and food packaging materials. Over time the polymer chains of BPA break down, and can enter the human body in many ways from drinking contaminated water to eating a fish that is exposed to the broken down toxins. Specifically, BPA is a known chemical that interferes with human hormonal function.
Rolf Halden, associate professor in the School of Sustainable Engineering and Arizona State University has studied plastics adverse effects on humans and has thus far concluded that and exact outline of health effects of plastics on humans is almost impossible to determine. This is due to the fact that the problem of plastic contamination in humans is globally spread; there are almost no unexposed subjects. That being said, it is evident that the chemicals are not healthy for humans.


Abstract:

The study set to establish the influence of strategic knowledge management on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County. The study was guided by both general and specific objective as follows: to determine the effect of strategic knowledge creation on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County; to investigate the effect of strategic knowledge distribution on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County; to evaluate the effect of strategic knowledge interpretation on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County and to determine the effect of strategic knowledge implementation on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County. To strengthen the conceptual framework, the study used the following theories: Resource based view theory; Knowledge based view theory and Strategic learning theory. The study target population was219 and sample size was141.This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. A modified Likert scale questionnaire was developed and divided into three parts. A pilot study was carried out to refine the instrument. The quality and consistency of the study will be further assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Data analysis was performed on a computer using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 25) for Windows. Data was presented in form of means, standard deviation, percentages and tables. The study results showed that there was a positive correlation between the independent variables and the dependent variable organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County. From the regression results the study showed that three variables namely strategic knowledge creation, strategic knowledge interpretation and strategic knowledge implementation have a significant influence on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County whereas the objective strategic knowledge distribution does not have an effect on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County. The study concluded that strategic knowledge creation, strategic knowledge interpretation and strategic knowledge implementation have an effect on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County. The study further, recommended that: The state corporations in Mombasa County to develop and adopt more solid knowledge acquisition initiatives. This would by far impact on human capital development in the organizations what further enhance the organizational performance; the state corporations in Mombasa County to consider doing knowledge mapping and to introduce cross-functional working relations between the employees of the organization to ensure knowledge acquired is converted and put into proper use; that state corporations in Mombasa County to consider introducing more formal channels of knowledge sharing within the organization and across the departments such that the employees are able to freely use both new and existing knowledge to solve new or existing problems in the organization.


Abstract:

The study set out to examine the influence of strategic planning practices on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County in Kenya. Currently the government of Kenya is on cost cutting measures that left it with more finances for development.The aim of these processes has been generally to create a customer-focused approach. Such an approach can obviously be appropriate and effective where the business is confident that what it is doing is right for now and for the future. The general objective of the study is to influence of strategic planning practices on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa County in Kenya. The study specific objectives are to examine the leadership style, organizational resources, information systems and organizational culture on organizational performance of state corporations in Mombasa in Kenya. To strengthen the conceptual framework the stud will use theories such as transformational theory of leadership, resource-based view theory, technological diffusion, Schein theory and Goal setting theory of performance to strengthen the conceptual framework. The study targets 219 state corporations’ employees who are charged with the responsibility of strategic planning practice who are director generals, chief managers and finance department. The study sample size was141. The research design was cross-sectional. This was done using drop and pick method. On Leadership styles the study Laissez-faire leadership style had a weak and positive relationship with performance. Information Systems have become part of state parastatals operations today. Like many businesses, parastatals rely heavily on IT infrastructure to provide services to citizens.Organizational resources were classified into human resources, financial resources and physical resources. Human resources were found to significantly influence performance while intangible resources and capabilities influence was not statistically significant performance. A good organizational culture will instill brawny employee behavior that is in turn conducive for good policy and strategy implementation.The composite of all resources was established to significantly influence performance. The study findings established that there was a strong positive correlation between three independent variables leadership style, organizational resources and information systems while organizational culture has no relationship. The study results rejected the null hypothesis of three variable leadership style, organizational resources and information systems; however, the study accepted the null hypothesis. The study concluded that leadership style, organizational resources and information systems have a significant effect on organizational performance of state corporations in Kenya. The study concluded that that leadership style should able to inspire the employees to motivate them to implement strategic plans; that state corporations should operate within the set budget and get much output from least input; that state corporations should adopt the use of technology to synchronize its operations and that state corporations should adopt organizational cultures that can reduce wastage of public resources.


Abstract:

Learning through mistakes and shortcomings is natural and a must and the same applies to dealing with problems in the teaching and learning of English in Bangladesh. The absence of ideal classrooms, poor infrastructural amenities both for ESL teachers and learners, lack of technological and modern equipment, lack of adroit and highly-trained teachers, imported teaching strategies, examination-oriented teaching approaches, and most importantly, the pervasiveness of a nationalistic-rooted monolingual sentiment for the mother tongue are among the problems that the education sector in Bangladesh must contend with, which consequently affect the cultivation of competent teachers and learners. The prevailing English language teaching methods in Bangladesh, including the grammar-translation method, direct method, audio-lingual method, present practice procedure method, communicative language teaching (CLT) and task-based learning, failed to resolve the above-mentioned issues. English language has been treated by the majority of the learners as a subject instead of a language, and they do not seem to be aware of the importance of spontaneity in acquiring it. This paper scrutinizes the challenges faced by ESL teachers in Bangladesh classrooms and provides some effective solutions to overcome these issues, such as establishing advanced infrastructural facilities, ameliorating teachers’ proficiency and ensuring Language Teacher Education is up-to-date. The paper also speculates how there are some inconsistencies and asymmetries between the stated objectives of teaching English and the actual teaching methods and strategies implemented in classrooms, then gives recommendations on how the ESL teachers can utilize CLT techniques in the classroom effectively in an effort to reduce the nationalistic monolingual sentiments that may be present among the learners.