November,2018 Issue


Corporate social responsibility is a way of giving back to the society by the businesses as a way of appreciating the society who are their consumers as well. By doing so, the corporations gain by having favorable public view thus in a way increase their profitability by having more consumers consume their products. The main objective of the study was to establish the effects of CSR on financial performance of commercial banks in Nakuru with focus on education and health activities. This study adopted social cost agency and relational theory. Primary data was used which was collected by use of questionnaires. Using descriptive research design, the study tested for a linear relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance. The target population was the Chief Finance Officers and managers in commercial banks in Nakuru town. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics, and the findings presented using tables. The study concluded that scholarships that commercial bank have provided to needy students has increased financial performance of the bank. Yet, it was also concluded the efforts that the bank has made in sponsoring community education has increased customers desire to continue banking with the bank. The study further inferred that most customers like being associated with the bank due to it support in buying books for school libraries in the area and bank support in construction of classroom blocks most customers often speak to surrounding people about the bank. The study recommended that banks should provide scholarships to the needy students since this will improve banks image which will attract more customers and hence improve their financial performance. It is also recommended that banks should put more resources in sponsoring community education so as to increase customers desire to continue banking with the bank. 



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The notion of ‘being’ is known as one of the initial problems of philosophy. Depending on its structure and existence, the architectural object has a convenient position to be reviewed in this context. From Plato to present, the question of existence has changed its focus from the universe to the individual, and the attempt to define the answers continues in a dynamic way. Architecture can carry existential concerns within itself as an object produced by a subject in the current philosophical system in which the acquisition of knowledge evolved from mental processes to bodily processes in the period between Kant and Merlau-Ponty. From this point of view, it is possible to talk about the concept of body in philosophical foundation as existentially as well as the body of architectural structure. This paper searches the possibility to make an existential reading through the reviewing of architectural products. The basis of the study is the assumption that the architect's design decisions and the architectural object itself can create an existential posture and this phenomenon can resist in time with the awareness of the architect. In this regard, this paper attempts to discuss the selected works of Carlo Scarpa as an architectural discourse through phenomenological approaches.


The yellow passion fruit is widely cultivated in Sri Lanka and production of passion fruit seedlings for commercial orchard is common among producers. The experiment was carried out at the Crop farm, Eastern University, Sri Lanka to evaluate different fertilizers on the production of yellow passion fruit seedlings growth in sandy regosol. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design. The treatments consisted of recommended inorganic fertilizer as basal (T1), and different organic fertilizers such as, cow dung as basal (T2), compost as basal (T3) and Farm Yard manure as basal (T4).Passion seeds were extracted from fruit which was obtained from same mother plant and sown in polybags. After seeds germinated, uniform seedlings were transplanted to polybags and fertilizers were applied according to the treatments. Parameters viz., plant height, fresh weights of shoot and root, dry weights of shoot and root, number of leaves were measured at weekly intervals and data was analyzed by using statistical software. The study revealed that compost applied seedlings (T3) increased the plant height, number of leaves and fresh and dry weights of shoots of yellow passion fruit seedlings in sandy regosol compared to other tested treatments.