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February,2016 Issue

Abstract:

Salinity is a significant constraint to sustainable rice productivity in many inland and coastal rice-growing areas of Sri Lanka. A pot experiment was conducted at Eastern University to explore the effects sulphate of potash (SOP) and partially burnt paddy husk (PBPH) application on the amelioration of salt-affected paddy soil. The experiment was arranged in 2 factor factorial experiment. During this study, soil pH, electrical conductivity, potassium content at heading stage, plant height and 1000-grain weight were examined. Potassium and PBPH application significantly increased potential 1000-grain weight and K+ content in plant. At the same time, it also significantly reduced soil pH and electrical conductivity. Soil pH decreased from 8.3 to near neutral and among the treatments it ranges from 7.40 – 7.46.  Combining PBPH with sulphate of potash influenced the soil electrical conductivity favourably and was decreased from 19.1dS/m to ≤4 dS/m. Plant potassium content was increased with increase in rate of K2O in the form of sulphate of potash from 0 to 72 kg/ha.  Combining PBPH amendment with SOP increased the potassium content in plants than non-amended soil. Highest plant potassium content was recorded at 72 kg K2O/ ha application in PBPH amended and non-amended soil as 51.913 and 33.762 mg/g dry weight respectively. Plant height was increased with increase in rate of K2O in the form of sulphate of potash from 0 to 72 kg /ha.  Highest 1000-grain weight was recorded at 72 kg K2O/ ha application in PBPH amended and non-amended soil as 21.9 g and 20.85 g respectively.  Combining partially burnt paddy husk and sulphate of potash might be improved the saline paddy soil pH, electrical conductivity and alleviate the effect of salinity on rice plants.


2.A STUDY OF HEMATOLOGICAL ABNORMALITES IN PATIENTS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

Qadir Fatima, Susheelakumari Godara, Komal Kumar Jangir, L.A. Gauri

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Abstract:

Introduction: The prevalence of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in most populations is around 1% with an incidence in women three times that in men. Studies on prevalence and anemia-related outcomes are needed to support the importance of anemia screening and treatment in RA. 
Objectives:To assess and evaluate hematological abnormalities (anaemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytosis, eosinophilia, and haematological malignancies) in patients of Rheumatoid arthritis.
Material & methods: This hospital based observation study was conducted among 101 patients of rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed according to2010 ACR/EULAR Classification Criteria for Rheumatoid Arthritisduring June 2014 to May 2015. Peripheral smears were studied after staining with the field’s and Leishman’s stain.CBC, ESR, Rheumatoid factor titre, CRP level, Serum folate and cobalamine levels, Serum iron, Serum TIBC,Serum ferritin and Stool examination were done in each patient.
Results: The present study observed that maximum percentage of females (79.2%)as compared to males (20.8%) in distribution of subjects in various age groups.Anaemia was found in 67 out of total 101 study subjects Among these 67 anaemic patients, 11 (16.4%) were males and 56 (83.60%) were females among which ACD was present in 37(36.6%) which is statistically significant in patients with high CRP level. Occurrence of anaemia was more in RA cases who had longer duration of disease. 
Conclusion: Patients with anemia tend to have more severe disease and also ACD is the most common type of anemia in RA and ACD was more significantally associated with CRP. In patients with anaemia and active rheumatoid arthritis serum ferritin is the best blood test currently available for the prediction of iron responsive anaemia. It was suggested that ESR shows significant negative correlation with haemoglobin level.


3.MANAGEMENT OF REFRACTORY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS [BIOLOGICALS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA)]

Dr. Gauri Liyakat Ali, Dr. Ravi Dutt, Dr.Sharanbasu, Dr.Asim Khan, Dr.Qadir Fatima & Dr.Ambreen Liyakat

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Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis is complex immune disorder and chronic systemic inflammatory disease that results in joint destruction and disability with multisystem involvement. Although with the advent of different DMARDS treatment of this disease is possible to some extent, but prolonged treatment course and adverse effects of the DMARDS are becoming its drawbacks and imposing to switch to other modalities of treatment. Treatment involving Biologicals have revolutionized the approach to this disease. These are found to target the pathologically involved cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and immune cells like B cells. New cytokine directed therapies target important proinflammatory mediators such as GM-CSF, new members of the IL-1 family, IL-6 and its receptor, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-23 as well as synovium-specific targets. Biologics are known to reduce the joint inflammation, limit erosions, decrease disability and improve quality of life. Although infections and cost effectiveness of drug are limiting its wide use, their use in conjunct with DMARDS (METHOTEXTRATE) has proven beneficial and is now the new mode of novel approach to the patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis.


Abstract:

Microalbuminuria predicts overt renal disease in diabetes mellitusand it is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, microalbuminuria is quite common (20 to 40 percent of patients) in both newly diagnosed patients and patients with established diabetes. This study was aimed to correlate cases of microalbuminuria with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), lipid profile, and duration since diagnosis, age, sex, and associated complications like Ischaemic heart disease, Hypertension, Retinopathy, Neuropathy among proven Type2 Diabetes Mellitus cases in Indian population. 
We concluded that there was significant correlation of microalbuminuria with duration since diagnosis i.e, first 0-5 yrs of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Body mass index ≥ 25, HbA1 smaller than 7%, total cholesterol  >200mg/dl, serum triglycerides >150mg/dl, LDL >100 mg/dl, hypertension, Ischaemic heart diseases and retinopathy thus proving the association of microalbuminuria with early onset inType2 Diabetes Mellitus population, with poor glycemic control, with retinopathy, cardiovascular risk factors like dyslipidemia, obesity and hypertension.


Abstract:

The object of the study work is to analysis “The Technology Driven for the Leather and Leather Product” for reducing the number of operations and introducing the sequence between improper operations. The study aims to increase in productivity and reduction in wastage of materials.


Abstract:

The design and operation of large scale project has become of concern to an ever increasing segment of the scientific and professional world. It is very difficult task to complete the selected project within the range of Budget resources and time. Thus scheduling and Estimation of cost are tremendous tasks for the project. Large project involves a lot of activities and barrier to schedule and estimate. In this work a new idea which is very effective to schedule time as well as cost estimation of the large project applying PERT/CPM and Project Crashing Method are developed. At first divide the whole project into number of activities and select the preceding and succeeding activities to build up a network diagram which ensures the critical path of the project. Then we use crashing to find the minimum required time for successful competition of the project. In addition to this work we have included a new scheduling technique by using the Earliest event time that can easily compute the time and cost of the project. Finally, algorithms are developed to perform the mentioned task in a sequential manner.


Abstract:

Trauma is the emerging public health problem world wide. It is the leading cause of death and disability in the first four decade of life and is the third most common cause of death over all. 10% of trauma results in abdominal injuries which may be blunt in 84% and penetrating in 16%. Early detection of these life threatening injuries is most important factor in decreasing incidence of death due to intra abdominal trauma.


Abstract:

This paper proposes the various methods to mitigate transients caused due to switching of  Induction Furnaces  working at 6.6KV, supplied by a double circuit 132KV feeder which also feed loads at different locations.  The frequent tripping of  Adjustable Speed Drives at one location led to the study of the reasons for tripping of drives and suggest methods to prevent the same. In order to study the reasons for the voltage transients due to switching of major loads, waveforms of voltages at various loads centres are observed using power quality analyzer.The study is conducted by analyzing the behaviour of transients by switching individual loads independently.During the study, it is observed that the distortion of the waveform was due to the switching of capacitor banks of horizontal and vertical induction furnaces. After analyzing the problem, remedial measures are being suggested for mitigating the transients on drives.


Abstract:

A microstrip patch antenna is designed having symmetrical slots in four quadrants to yield triple frequency of 2.5 GHz, 3.8 GHz and 4.7 GHz using FR4 substrate having dielectric constant of 4.4.  The bandwidth obtain are 250 MHz, 15 MHz and 140 MHz respectively. This antenna can be used for various wireless communication applications such as mobile communication, satellite, WLAN and WPAN. The antenna is based on transmission line model and is simulated using Zealand Inc.’s IE3D software which works on the principle of method of moments.


Abstract:

Renin is a proteolytic enzyme that is primarily produced by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney that is encoded by the REN gene. Angiotensin (Ang) II is locally produced in the kidney. The Angiotensin II is an active peptide and it constricts the blood vessels due to which blood pressure increases. The renin-angiotensin system altogether acts as a hormonal system in regulating the blood pressure and water or osmotic balance of the system. The renin-angiotensin system in collaboration with aldosterone is known as the Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system as it regulates various activities in the body and its function as a hormone system. There are many clinical implications of the renin-angiotensin system, some of them are documented in this review, that include controlling hypertension and stress, chronic kidney diseases, cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system disorders and memory facilitation.


11.A REVIEW OF ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY, ANTIVIRAL AND CYTOTOXIC / ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF MORUS ALBA LINN

Ishrat Younus*, Anab Fatima, Syed Muzaffar Ali, Saman Usmani, Zubia Begum, Sehrish Badar and Rabia Asghar

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Abstract:

Morus alba Linn. belongs to family Moraceae commonly known as White mulberry, is one of the old and popular plant esteemed for its wide variety of nutritional and therapeutic values. It has great antiviral and cytotoxic potential. The present review summarizes ethnobotany, phytochemistry, antiviral and cytotoxic / anticancer potential of Morus alba. Phytochemical screening of Morus alba revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, polysaccharides and lectins which act as antiviral, cytotoxic and antiapoptotic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on antiviral and cytotoxic potential of Morus alba Linn. in detail.


Abstract:

Background: Chikungunya virus is a member of the Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. The Alpha viruses consist of 30 species of arthropod borne viruses, which are further sub grouped into seven serocomplexes. O'nyong-nyong virus (ONN) is considered to be closely related to CHIK. The percentage identities of non-structural and structural polyproteins between CHIK and ONN were 85% compared with 42-70% between CHIK and other alpha viruses.
AIM: To find out a clinical and laboratory profile during recent outbreak of Chikungunya during September 2010 in Bikaner (North-Western Rajasthan) and they were followed for 2 years to know about their complications.
Results: In our study highly significant relation was found between age, number of joints partially recovered, CRP positivity, raised ESR and persistent arthralgia. In our study CRP was positive in 17(8.5%) patients in 41-60yr age group,15(7.5%) patients in 20-40 yr age group and 9(4.5%) patients in >60yr age group. In our study we find that mean ESR progressively increased with duration; the mean ESR was 48.6mm at onset of disease, 55.81mm at one year and 64.15mm at 2year.In our study all the patients were tested for Rheumatoid factor, among them 5(2.5%) patients found positive for RF. These all 5 patients had persistent arthralgia and 82 patients having persistent arthralgia were tested for anti CCP antibody, among them 17(20.73%) patients found positive.
Conclusion: Our findings draw attention to the importance of assessing management issues such as strategies for supportive treatment of CHIK illness in further studies. Finally, these studies should be designed in order to estimate the magnitude of chronic rheumatic illness directly attributable to CHIKV infection and its potential effect on quality of life over a prolonged period.


13.DENGUE FEVER – RECENT OUTBREAK 2013 IN BIKANER: A FOLLOW UP STUDY OF 4 WEEKS

Gauri L.A, Sharanbasu Diggi, Rohitash Kularia, Asim Khan, Q Fatima, Ambreen Liyakat

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Abstract:

Introduction: Dengue infections result in a disease continuum that includes syndromes varying in severity and prognosis. These include dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), the most severe form of DHF. All are caused by dengue viruses that belong to the family Flaviviridae as four serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4)1,2. The exact clinical profile is important for patient management and thus crucial for saving life. The present study is an attempt to describe the salient clinical as well as laboratory findings of serologically confirmed hospitalized cases of dengue fever during the study period. The study group represented the adult population.
Aim and objectives
1. To study the clinical profile of recent of dengue epidemic cases 
2. To evaluate the complications, outcome and follow up of Dengue patients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with dengue fever (sero positive) with or without thrombocytopenia admitted to medical wards of S. P. Medical College& Associated Group of P. B. M. Hospitals Bikaner.
Inclusion criteria
• Age more than 16 years
• Proven case of dengue fever by NS1, IgM, or IgG antibody
• A written consent given by patient
Exclusion criteria: Other causes of fever with thrombocytopenia like malaria, brucellosis, leptospira, and enteric fever.
Sample size: 200 cases.
Results: Out of total 200 patients, 173(86.5%) patients had classical dengue fever, 23(11.5%) had dengue haemorrhagic fever while only 4(2%) patients had dengue shock syndrome. A total of 151 (75.5%) patients were male and 49 (24.5%) were females with a male to female ratio of 3:1. All(100%) of the patients presented with fever. All patients were admitted with history of fever, majority of patients had their duration of fever between 2-6 days. The other symptoms observed were arthralgia (80%), backache (87%), headache (94.5%), nausea or vomiting (72.5%) and abdominal pain (72%). The skin rash was present in (8%) cases and pruritus in 25% cases and 69 (34.5%) patients had pleural effusion and out of them 61 and 8 patients had their platelet count <50000/cmm, 50000-1 lakh/cmm respectively and the difference was found statistically highly significant (p<0.001) and ascites was present in total 48 patients and out of them 42 patients had their platelet count <50000/cmm and remaining 6 patients had their platelet count 50000-1 lakh/cmm and the difference was found statistically highly significant (p<0.001).
Conclusion: In our study 200 serologically confirmed cases of dengue viral infection, majority of the patients were in adult age group. There was male preponderance with male to female ratio of 3:1. Most of the cases belonged to classical dengue fever with 11.5% cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and only 2% cases of dengue shock syndrome. All the patients had fever and constitutional symptoms like backache, arthralgia, headache, vomiting, abdominal pain etc. Fifteen percent patients had evidence of spontaneous hemorrhagic manifestations with hemoptysis, epistaxis or hematuria. Evidence of plasma leakage in the form of ascites and pleural effusion was present in 34.5% and 24% cases respectively. All the patients improved with symptomatic and conservative treatment and no mortality was noted in the study showing a favourable outcome. Follow up of cases after 4 weeks showed no incidence of readmission or any adverse complications and dropouts were noted due to reluctance of patients for follow up study as they were perfectly healthy and few could not be contacted.


Abstract:

Sanitation is unequivocally a preventive measure in achieving human health and environmental upkeep.  Sanitation is a holistic package comprising personal hygiene, safe drinking water, and unpolluted neighborhood, facilities for safe disposal of sewage and solid waste and provision for disposal of human waste.  Measurement of sanitation facilities is no easy task as it involves both qualitative and quantitative inputs.  An attempt was made to engage secondary source of quantitative information on sanitation variables like drinking water and access to toilet facilities in framing and Environmental Sanitation Index.  This paper aims to discuss the methodology of preparation of Environmental Sanitation Index and the estimated indices for all the states and union territories of India.  The Environmental Sanitation Index shall help identify the performing states vis-à-vis underperforming states in regard to sanitation.  This may act as a reckoner for policy making body to plan for enhanced sanitation facilities in India.