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January,2016 Issue

Abstract:

The laser appliance used also for superficial hardening is made – in principle – of a reflecting cavity calledresonator, with special mirrors and a reflecting capacity that is basically zero. These are positioned face to face and filledwith a special active medium – in solid, liquid or gaseous state – in which the phenomenon of electron population inversionmay take place.The paper present the influence of laser beam hardening upon nitrocarburate structures. Research was madeon two categories of carbon steel for buildings namely C 30 and C 45. After nitrocarburising was made a laserhardening.


Abstract:

Background : Menopause is the period during which systemic oestrogen level is reduced. During postmenopausal period, bone remodelling cycle is distorted and is occasionally associated with low bone mass which is the major determinant of bone strength. Zoledronic acid, a third generation bisphosphonates available as an alternative formulation approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women. 
Aim : To study the efficacy of zolendronic acid in the post menopausal women with low BMD through change in BMD and to assess the adverse effects, compliance and adherence of the of zoledronic acid in the post menopausal women with low BMD.
Results : Mean BMD on day 1 was 0.4380.039 while on 1 year it was 0.4800.037 and the difference was found highly significant. Mean T-score on day 1 was -2.2800.677 and on 1 year follow up it was -1.6420.644 and the difference was found statistically highly
significant (p<0.001). We divided T-Score into two groups i.e. >-2.50 and -1 to -2.5. Out of total 100 patients, on day 1 total 37 patients were found in T-Score group >-2.5 group and out of them 5, 25 and 7 belonged to <60, 61-70 and >70 years of age group and total 63 patients were found in T-Score group -1to-2.5group and out of them 20, 37 and 6 belonged to <60, 61-70 and >70 years of age group.
Conclusion : In conclusion zoledronic acid was effective drug for the treatment of the postmenopausal women with the low bone mineral density with a once yearly administration with only significant infusion related reaction, which can be managed conservatively. Zoledronic acid is also safe without effect on renal and hepatic function, and without any adverse serious reaction, though a large study and long follow up required to reach some definite conclusion.


Abstract:

Coronary artery disease Coronary artery disease is a serious and fatal illness with very high morbidity and mortality. It remains the commonest cause of mortality in developed countries and is rapidly assuming a similar role in developing ones.


Abstract:

Background: Eosinophil play an important role in the pathophysiology of Allergic Rhinitis. Presence of tissue eosinophilia is a characteristic feature of allergic inflammation and is associated with release of Th2 cytokines with gives rise to various symptoms.
Objective: To establish the diagnostic importance of Eosinophil count in nasal smear for Allergic Rhinitis. Methods: Patient were selected on basis of history & clinical examination. These patients were subjected to nasal smear for eosinophilia.
Results: The study showed strong correlation between nasal eosinophilia and Allergic rhinitis i.e. 88.57% of patients had significant nasal eosinophilia (>10% eosinophil of total leucocytes).
Conclusion: Nasal eosinophilia is a reliable indicator for diagnosis of Allergic rhinitis. It is a non-invasive and inexpensive OPD test. Thus it can be a valuable adjunct for history and clinical examination in the diagnosis of Allergic rhinitis.


Abstract:

The present study deals with the pre-treatment of sugar cane molasses for the enhanced production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger NG-4. The maximum production of citric acid (36.4 g/l) was achieved in the medium pre-treated with 250 ppm potassium ferrocyanide. In a parallel study, the acids and metal complexing agents were added in the molasses medium, alternatively prior to heating at 90°C for 1 h. Sugar concentration (150 g/l), intial pH (6) and incubation period (168 h) were also optimized. The kinetic parameters such as growth yield coefficients (Yp/s, Yp/x, Yx/s in g/g), volumetric rates (Qp, Qs, Qx in g/l/h) and specific substrate rates (qp, qs in g/g cells/h) of the research work were also undertaken. The value of Qp (0.134 g/l/h) is highly encouraging (p≤0.05).


6.Congenital Acute Leukaemia - A Case Report

Rakesh Jora , Pramod Sharma, SK Vishnoi, Praveen Chopra

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Abstract:

Acute leukaemia is rare in neonates. Only a few cases have been reported so far. Congenital leukaemia occurs at a rate of 1 per 5 million births. The majority are Non-Lymphocytic type (80%), while acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) comprises only  20%. Familial neonatal leukemia is extremely rare and no child born to a mother with leukemia has been found to have the disease during the neonatal period. We are reporting here a rare case of lymphomonocytoid type of congenital leukaemia in a newborn.


Abstract:

As the penetration of energy from sustainable energy sources like wind, solar and wave are increasing gradually, the electricity market is moving towards the deregulation. Initially deregulated markets were mainly focused on the tariff structure of the power systems. After the effective participation of deregulated market in the whole market environment the technical activity like frequency control which was considered earlier as a part of integrated electricity supply, is now considered as an independent service. But in the competitive deregulated market, it is a challenging job to implement the service which is technical in nature. This paper basically identifies the technical terms of frequency control and focus on the economic features of it in the deregulated market, considering it as an ancillary service.


8.TUBERCULOSIS PRESENTING AS IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA

Surendra kumar, VB singh, Vinod Kumar Aswal, VK Tundwal, BK Gupta, Akhil Gupta

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Abstract:

A myriad of haematological complications have been reported in association to tuberculosis such as anemia, leukocytosis and pancytopenia. Thrombocytopenia in tuberculosis is often induced by anti tubercular drugs or in context of pancytopenia secondary to marrow infiltration (1,2). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura associated with tuberculosis is extremely rare event. We report a case of immune TP associated with tuberculosis that was presented with severe hemorrhagic diasthesis.


Abstract:

The present study has been carried out to evaluate ground water potential zone in Jashipur block of Mayurbhanj district, Odisha. Survey of India toposheets and LISS-III satellite imageries are
used to prepare various thematic layers. Nine parameters have been considered for this study such as drainage density, elevation, geology, geomorphology, land use and land cover,
lineaments, slope and soil texture. The thematic layers that are in vector are converted to raster using feature to raster converter tool in ArcGIS (10.2.1). Weightage for each parameters and its
classes have been assigned. Weighted overlay analysis tool in ArcGIS software has been used to find out the results. The findings has been compared with the collected sample data to assess the
accuracy of results. The ground water potential map was prepared in which six zones have been demarcated. These are named as excellent, very good, good, moderate, poor and very poor. The
ground water potential zone map can be used for sustainable development and management of ground water in this hard rock terrain.


Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the time series components, and to build an appropriate model to forecasttherainfall of Rajshahi district in Bangladesh using the monthly
rainfall data over January, 1975 to June, 2012 collected from Bangladesh meteorological department.The statistical software R with the packages ‘forecast’ and ‘zyp’ was used for
whole analysis. The descriptive statistics of rainfall showed high fluctuation from their mean, positively skewed and platykurtic curve. The time series rainfall data was decomposedinto
stochastic trend, seasonal variations and random movements. The yearly rainfall data showed decreasing trend by 11.25 mm/year. The moving average smoothing of monthly rainfall
intended to be decreased over May, 2007 to June, 2012. But, after first seasonal difference, the rainfall data became stationary and that wasconformed using appropriate tests. The
SARIMA(0, 0, 0)(4, 1, 0)12 model was found as best model on the basis ofdiagnostic test, stability and reliability. The forecasted values from July, 2012 to December, 2025 divulged
adecreasing pattern that may be a threat to the cultivators as well as to the nature as a whole.


11.OBSERVATIONAL STUDY TO LOCATE NUTRIENT FORAMINA IN LONG BONES OF UPPER EXTREMITY IN WESTERN POPULATION

Sharma Karishma*,Raichandani Leena ,Kataria.K. Sushma,Gurjar Anoop,Patolia Pushpa, Raichandani Kishor  and Raichandani Surbhi

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Abstract:

Introduction: The nutrient foramina is a opening that carry the nutrient arteries and the peripheral nerves on the shaft of long bones. Long bones receive most of the interosseous blood supply from the nutrient arteries, and sometimes through the periosteal vessels. The  aim of the study was to evaluate  the number, position and direction of the nutrient foramina in the humerus, radius and uulna of dry bones of western  rajasthan origion and correlate the findings clinically.

Material and Methods:  Humerus, radius and ulna 100 each were taken from the department of Anatomy,Dr S.N. Medical College,Jodhpur and studied for the location ,direction and number of Nutrient foramina.Inclusion of these bones were irrespective of the gender and age. Sliding caliper and osteometric board,magnifying glass were used for measuring these parameters

Result: It were found that  the direction of nutrient foramina is opposite to the growing end i.e.seek the elbow. Double nutrient foramina were found in (17% ), (18%) cases of humerus and radius respectively.The nutrient foramen in( 100%) humerus was found in middle 1/3rd. The nutrient foramen in (90% )radius was found in middle 1/3rd and ( 10%) in upper 1/3rd.in (85 %) Ulna the nutrient foramina was found in middle1/3rd and( 15%) in upper 1/3. 

Conclusion:This anatomical study of nutrient foramina in shaft  study of long bones is of paramount importance in medico- legal aspect and also important in surgical procedures like bone grafting and microsurgical bone transplantation.




Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by proteinuria and is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. A case control study was designed to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic subjects. 50 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 50 normal healthy controls were screened for albumin and creatinine. The urinary albumin was calculated in terms of ratio with respect to urinary creatinine and expressed as albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g). Albumin/Creatinine ratio in controls was found to be 11.05 ± 4.52 mg/g. The mean ± SD of Albumin/Creatinine ratio in total 50 patients was 38.77 ± 23.13 mg/g. The value of urinary albumin between 30 and 300 mg/g of creatinine was considered to be positive for microalbuminuria. Out of total 50 diabetic subjects, 31 patients were found to have albumin excretion of more than 30 mg/g of creatinine in random morning samples and therefore positive for microalbuminuria. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic subjects in this study was 62%. Use of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio in an untimed urinary sample should be recommended as the preferred screening strategy for all diabetic patients.


13.AN OVERVIEW IN MODIFICATION OF AYURVEDIC DOSAGE FORMS

Abhaya Kumar Mishra, K. Unnikrishna Pillai & Krishnapriya. K. L

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Abstract:

While going through history, we can understand that addition of new dosage forms, transformation of dosage forms, etc. in Ayurveda were introduced & applied by different Acharyas at different time period. Evolution of dosage forms includes the wide range of modification from Vedic period to Modern era in Ayurveda. Now-a-days, the transformation of classical preparations into modified forms like Tablets, Capsule, Syrup, etc. can be seen. These kinds of modifications are the result of industrialization. Nano Bhasma, Transdermal Patch, Inhalers, Ayurvedic Films and Strips etc. are some of the upcoming new dosage forms in Ayurveda. To globalize Ayurveda, these kinds of innovations are needed. Knowledge of Biotechnology, Biochemistry, etc. by Ayurveda students & practitioners will help in formulating these kinds of dosage forms.


Abstract:

Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause for the cancer related mortality worldwide. It is important to define the prognostic markers for this deadliest disease so that we can predict the survival of the patient and treatment outcome. 
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of EGFR overexpression in NSCLC with immunohistochemistry and to determine its prognostic significance. 
Materials & methods: 45 cases with histological diagnosis of NSCLC diagnosed in a tertiary care hospital, north Kerala were selected and immunohistochemistry for was performed on their bronchoscopic specimens and they were followed up and their survival at 6th month was noted. 
Results: EGFR positivity was noted in 28.89% of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. In this study We didn’t get any significant correlation between EGFR overexpression and survival/histology/stage of the disease. A statistically significant correlation was seen between the stage of the disease and  survival  (p values – 0.003). Patients with stage III disease showed higher proportion of EGFR positivity but it was not statistically significant. 
Conclusion: The prognostic significance of EGFR remains to be defined. IHC assesses the EGFR as total cellular level rather than its activated form, which is probably the only form affecting prognosis and IHC relies more on the subjective judgements. So the priority should be given to the standardisation of the techniques used to assess the overexpression of EGFR. But EGFR overexpression can be used as a predictive factor.
 


15.VULVAR MELANOMA. A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Latika Sahu, Asmita M.Rathore, Reena Rani & Nidhi Mahajan

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Abstract:

Vulvar cancer accounts for approximately 2- 5% of all gynaecological malignancy. The histologic subtype of melanoma is a rare entity. Steady increase in life expectancy of women has made these cancers more important as these malignancies are more common in 6th to7th decade of life and later. Here the authors are presenting a case of vulvar melanoma diagnosed at stage-II manged by radical vulvectomy with inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy. Review of literature regarding etiopathogenesis, management and followup of vulvar melanoma are also discussed.