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October,2021 Issue

1.WATER GOVERNANCE IN INDIA: AN ANALYSIS

Yamuna B.Raj* and Dr.B.P.Mahesh Chandra Guru

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KARNATAKA

Abstract:

The livelihood of people and the sustainability of water resources are basically dependent on sound water governance. Water conservation is the need of the hour since the world is facing the worst kind of water scarcity. There is a need for sound water governance to save the world from water insecurity in India and abroad. Clean water and sanitation is one of the major goals of sustainable development. The population of India is constantly growing and the demand for water is expected to grow from 40 billion cubic metres currently to around 220 bcm in 2025. Enlightened approaches are necessary to facilitate water conservation to meet the demands of the future generations. Water governance is crucial for the optimum utilization of water resources by adopting healthy water conservation practices. There is a need for sustainable management of water resources in India. The judiciary has observed that the government was duty bound to provide safe water to its citizens for full enjoyment of life. It is necessary to improve access to water and sanitation services and honor the fundamental rights of the people. The issue of mismanagement of water resources should be scientifically addressed by the authorities in order to prevent over-exploitation of water resources.


2.A SHORT REVIEW ON CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Shopnil Akash and Mst.Fateha Arefine

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BANGLADESH

Abstract:

Francis Crick announced the Central Dogma of molecular biology upwards of half a century (1958) to clarify the interconnections between the fundamental informational macromolecules, including DNA, RNA, and proteins. This dogma asserted that genetic information could be transferred from DNA to DNA/RNA or nucleic acid to protein. Nevertheless, transmitting information from one protein to another or from one protein to nucleic acid is difficult. The purpose of this essay is to assess Central Dogma's Basic concept.


Abstract:

Background of the study: Mother is the primary care taker, first educator and nurturer of the next generation. Motherhood confers upon a woman the responsibility of raising a child.1 this process also changes the way in which she is perceived in society and at her workplace. What is Working Mothers guilt? Working mother’s guilt is when something happens that makes you feel guilty about being a working mom. For example, you may feel guilty when you leave your child crying at daycare or you forget something for school because you were too busy thinking about work. A working mother needs significant social and personal adjustments to cope with such a situation. It can compel her to take more than available leave options, leading to risk of job security. Along with motherhood, work adds to the wholeness of being a woman. A working mother, especially the one who has the good fortune to be able to balance her home and work, enjoys the stimulation that a job or career provides. She develops the ability of upraise a useful member of society and at the same time gains financial independence.
Objectives of the study: the aim of the study to assess the level of guilt feelings regarding child caring among working mothers in selected institutions of Punjab. To determine the association of guilt feelings regarding child caring with selected socio-demographic variables.
Material and methods: A quantitative research approach and a descriptive design was used Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to select 50 working mothers, Questionnaire method was used to collect data by using guilt complex assessment scale for working mothers.
Results: The study finding reveals that level of guilt feelings regarding child caring among working mothers includes majority of working mothers  that is 80% had mild level of guilt feelings followed by 14% working mothers  had moderate level of guilt feelings, 6%. Working mothers had no guilt feelings and no one had severe level of guilt feelings.
Conclusion: Most of the working mothers had mild guilt feelings 80% regarding child caring. In socio- demographic variables qualification, occupation had association with working mother’s guilt feelings where as other variables like age, family type, number of children, children age, area of living, religion had no association with working mother’s guilt feelings.


Abstract:

The purpose of this research project was to investigate the influence of supplier selection on procurement performance among Tea Buyers in Mombasa. The specific objectives include to examine the influence of supplier competency on procurement performance among Tea Buyers in Mombasa, to find out the influence of supplier control on procurement performance among Tea Buyers in Mombasa, to establish the influence of supplier collaboration on procurement performance among Tea Buyers in Mombasa and to investigate the influence of supplier quality management on procurement performance among Tea Buyers in Mombasa. The study adopted Competency Theory, Control Theory of Supply Chain Management, Relationship Management Theory, Deming’s theory of Total Quality Management, and Performance theory. The study adopted a mixed research design with a target population of 148 drawn from various tea buyers who conduct business with various suppliers. In this stratified sampling was applied to generate a sample size of 108. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain primary data while secondary data was gotten using published journals, books, internet, and magazines. Statistical package of social science (SPSS), Package 25 was used to facilitate data processing and analysis. The relationship between independent and dependent variables were determined using a multivariant regression analysis and the strength of the relationship of independent and dependent variable was determined by use of Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The study showed that there was a positive correlation between all the four independent variables and the dependent variable procurement performance among tea buyers in Mombasa. The study concludes that supplier competency, supplier control, supplier collaboration and supplier quality management have a significant effect on procurement performance among tea buyers in Mombasa. That the study recommended that suppliers should develop competent technical abilities so as to provide high quality products or services.  Some of the technical dimensions that suppliers should develop competence in include compliance with quantity, compliance with due date, compliance with packaging standard, production planning systems of suppliers, and maintenance activities of suppliers, plant layout and material. The study recommended the need for suppliers to enhance their control so as to meet the expectations of their customers.  Control is one of the key factors for any company’s success and therefore suppliers should be evaluated based on this criterion.  Some of the criterion that firms can use to assess their suppliers is Technological level, which involves general assessment of the supplier’s control and capability in terms of innovation and technology. The study recommended that suppliers should formulate an effective collaborative plan, which will ensure that their financial viability is sustainable and strategic alliances.  Also, the study recommends that tea buyers should set some funds apart to allow site visit to the supplier.  This will enable them to have firsthand information on whether the supplier is really in a position to supply goods to them and if they are actually having financial capacity. The study established that supplier quality commitment, and in line with this the study recommended the need for suppliers to improve on the quality of their services. The improvement of the mentioned quality aspects will lead to improved service provision by suppliers, which will translate into increased performance of state corporations.  Also, it’s important to check the supplier’s reliability in terms timeliness and also check if suppliers are in conformance with ISO standards.


Abstract:

Among other common forms of government financial con¬trol, caps on interest rates have been declining over the past several decades as most industrialized countries and a rising number of developing countries continue liberalizing their financial policies. However, in several countries the last financial crisis reopened the debate on interest rate controls as a tool for consumer protection. Interest rate margin is one of the critical components in the lending decision process of commercial banks. Commercial banks are independent business entities that set their own interest rate margin based on the central bank base rates. The aim of this study was to analyze bank specific determinants influencing bank margins interest rates in the midst of capping among commercial banks in Kenya using secondary data for the period 2013 to 2018, a period characterized by unrestricted and interest rate cap. The specific objectives were to analyze the influence of: credit risk, capital adequacy, operation efficiency, and liquidity risk and bank size on interest rate margins. The study adopted exploratory research design. Panel data was employed using annual data over the period before interest rate, covering 2013-2015, and after capping of interest rate, covering 2016 to 2018. Thirty-eight commercial banks in Kenya which were in normal operation as at 31st December 2018 were used giving 228 firm observations. Interest rate margins was informed by Dealership Model and its extensions while analyzing the influence of bank specific determinants, that is, credit risk, capital adequacy, operation efficiency and liquidity risk on interest rate margins. Applying STATA 13.0 employing Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium modeling, Generalized Method of Moments approach was used in the analysis. Descriptive statistics in form of pie charts, graphs, and summary statistics were presented. Inferential statistics was analyzed using regression analysis to establish the influence of bank specific economic determinants on the interest rate margin. The findings would be useful to policy makers, shareholders, customers in the respective commercial banks in Kenya. The government could also utilize the findings in making policies affecting commercial banks in Kenya which could have an impact on interest rate margin.


Abstract:

This paper investigates foreign exchange rate risk management practices among Kenyan firms in the energy sector. The study focuses on how Kenyan energy sector firms manage their foreign exchange risk and the challenges they face in managing exchange rate exposure. It also seeks to ascertain the extent to which these firms use foreign exchange rate risk management techniques. The results indicate that most of the firms in the energy sector in Kenya do have formal documented foreign exchange rate risk management systems which are also embedded in the overall company strategic plans. However, the firms exhibited a low-level use of hedging techniques. For firms which use hedging techniques, forwards and currency swaps are the most used instruments, and transaction exposure is the most managed exchange rate risk. Translation and economic exposure are not well identified and managed mainly because firms believe it is unnecessary or rather too complex. Further, firms hedge their exposure but not fully due to high cost of hedging.
The main value of this study is the analysis of foreign exchange exposure management from a Kenyan perspective. Relevant recommendations aimed at enhancing the foreign exchange rate risk management practices among Kenyan energy sector firms are made. The study is useful not only to the policy makers, entrepreneurs in the energy sector and academicians, but also to financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to these firms.


7.LEADERSHIP STYLE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF REMITTANCE COMPANIES IN MODADISHU-SOMALIA

Omar Abdulahi Abdulkadir, Aaron Mukhongo, Dr. Everlyne Datche

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KENYA

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of leadership style on organizational performance in remittance companies in Mogadishu-Somalia. The general objective of the study was to establish the effect of leadership style on organizational performance in remittance companies in Mogadishu-Somalia. The leadership style drivers will select for the study, and which will form the specific objectives of the study are to determine the effect of Autocratic leadership style, Democratic leadership style, Transactional leadership style, and transformational leadership style on the performance of the remittance companies in Mogadishu-Somalia. The study discusses three theories, and they are: systems theory organization, Agency theory and stakeholder theory. The study will adopt quantitative research with the specific research design being a descriptive design. The population of the study is the classified remittance companies locate in Bakara market, and they are 15 remittance companies in Bakara market, the employees worked that 15 remittance companies are 402 employees. The sampling frame is 402 employees in 15 remittance companies arising from the sample size of 200 employees will extensively surveyed to ascertain the influence of leadership style drivers on their performance. The sampling technique use will be purposive sampling. Primary data will collect by use of questionnaires which are administered through drop and pick method. Data screening will be done to identify any missing data and it will be further test for reliability and normality. Data will be analyzing using SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistics e.g standard deviations and inferential statistics such as Pearson’s correlation, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis will be used for further analysis. The study results revealed that the manager does not explain his actions to employees in the organization and only directs the employees to perform duties as instructed. The study established that the manager takes decisions arbitrarily and that the manager believes that employee will work best in a situation where they are given clear and direct instruction on their job. The study concludes that the firms’ staffs are, despite being supervised closely, given enough freedoms and space to make their own decisions on how to best execute given functions. The management involves employees in every decision-making process affecting their jobs. The managers derive joy in helping their employees and transforming them morally and professionally. The study concludes that the manager views employees as having different needs, abilities, and aspirations and works towards individualized attention through listening to individual needs. The researcher recommends that the management of the organizations should always endeavor to explain their actions to employees emphatically. This would make employee feel appreciated and has a high potential in improving overall employee productivity.