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Welcome To IJARR

International Journal of Advanced Research and Review (IJARR) is a peer reviewed, open access International Scientific ONLINE Journal dedicated for rapid publication (monthly) of high quality original research articles, case reports as well as review articles in all subjects. IJARR with an internationally recognized editorial board emphasizes on producing high quality research content.

We intend to build mutually beneficial and long-lasting relationships with our authors and provide them full support throughout the publishing and the post-publishing processes.


Latest Issue, December 2022

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Mariam Moige MUHANDO, Prof. Wario GUYO, Dr. Makori MORONGE

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Hospitality industry plays a critical role in a country’s economic development. In Kenya, even though the sector is the second largest foreign exchange earner the industry faces a myriad of challenges. The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between board diversity and performance of five star hotels in Kenya. The study was hinged to Stewardship Theory. The study adopted descriptive research designs and used quantitative approach. The unit of analysis was five star rated hotels and hence the study targeted all the fifteen five start hotels operating in Kenya, while the unit of observation was 198 (head of departments, managers and board members). The respondents were sought through census. Structured questionnaires were the main tool to collect primary data from the targeted respondents. The study used regression analysis and the findings revealed that there is significant relationship between board diversity and performance of five star hotels. The study concluded that board diversity had a significant effect on performance of five star hotels. It was also concluded that firm size had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between corporate governance and performance of five star hotels in Kenya. The study recommends that board composition, ownership concentration, board diversity need to be facilitated to improve performance of five star hotels in Kenya. This could go a long way in ensuring there is improved performance of five star hotels in Kenya.


Timothy Vikiru, Prof. Wario Guyo, Dr. Joyce Amuhaya, Dr. Makori Moronge

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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of board governance on performance of deposit taking SACCOs in Kenya. The contextual scope of this study was limited to the deposit taking SACCOs in Kenya. The study is based on the Stewardship theory. A conceptual framework is illustrated to show the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. This study was anchored to a positivist paradigm as well as descriptive-correlational-cross-sectional research designs. The target population of the study was 350 CEOs and chairpersons of the boards of the deposit taking Saccos in Kenya. The study used to select the subjects of study. Explanatory research design was used for this study as it sought to determine relationships between variables. The study used bivariate regression analysis to analyze the association between board governance dimensions and performance of deposit taking Saccos. The results revealed that board governance practices had a positive and significant relationship with performance of deposit taking Saccos in Kenya. The results support the current theories related to the study. Consequently, this study provides deposit taking Saccos on how to improve performance of Saccos through the adoption of appropriate board governance practices.


The performance of insurance firms in Kenya continues dwindling, yet the industry has undergone various improvements and consolidations over the years. The total growth rate either stagnates or drop every year. This has also changed the dynamics of operations in this sector as the companies are faced with an even harder task in attaining competitive advantage. This has seen various insurance companies that were not meeting the stakeholder’s expectations or experiencing huge losses seeking for other alternatives. The purpose the study was to examine the relationship between strategic corporate restructuring and performance of insurance firms in Kenya. The study was guided by the following specific research objectives: To determine the influence of diversification strategy on the performance of insurance firms in Kenya; To examine the influence of disinvestment strategy on the performance of insurance firms in Kenya; To establish the influence of divestiture strategy on the performance of insurance firms in Kenya; To assess the influence of strategic alliances strategy on the performance of insurance firms in Kenya. The study was anchored to Wieck’s Model Theory of Organizing, Transaction Cost Economics and Resource Based Theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The study population was 319 head of departments of the insurance firms in Kenya. The unit of analysis will be insurance firm in Kenya. The study sampled 178 respondents established by Slovin’s sample size determination formular. The study adopted purposive, stratified and random sampling techniques. Primary data was collected through the use of questionnaires. Quantitative and qualitative data was generated from the closed-ended and open-ended questions, respectively. Qualitative data was analyzed on thematic basis and the findings provided in a narrative form. Inferential and descriptive statistics were employed for analysis of quantitative data with the assistance of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 25). Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, mean (measure of dispersion), standard deviation, and percentages were used. Inferential data analysis was conducted by use of Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis. The study results were presented through use of tables and figures. Results revealed that all the strategic corporate restructuring dimensions had a positive and significant relationship with performance of insurance firms in Kenya. However, the magnitude of the influence was different for the specific strategic corporate restructuring dimensions. The disinvestment strategy had the largest effect followed by divestiture strategy then diversification strategy and finally the strategic alliances. Consequently, this study provides insurance firms managers involved in the corporate restructuring with insights of how to the appropriate corporate restructuring strategy. The key recommendations are that insurance firms should embrace corporate restructuring strategies such as diversification, disinvestment, divestiture and strategic alliances in order to attain their goals.


History and Government is an important subject in the Kenyan curriculum as it has social, economic and political impact in our lives. Despite its importance, students’ mean score for History and Government in KCSE nationally and in Baringo central sub county from the year 2016- 2019 is well below 50%. Performance by gender favors boys as has been noted over the years. Quasi-experimental research design, specifically Solomon-Four Non-Equivalent Control Group Research Design was used. The target population comprised of secondary school students in Baringo central sub county while the accessible population was Form Two students in co-educational sub-county public secondary schools in Baringo central sub-county was 1014 students. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a sample of four Co-educational sub-county public Secondary Schools. Each school provided one Form Two class for the study hence a sample size of 158 students. The instruments used in the study were History and Government Student Achievement Test (HGSAT) and History and Government Motivation Questionnaire (HGMQ). All instruments were pilot-tested in secondary schools within Baringo central sub-county but in a division that was not be included in the study with but similar characteristics as the sampled schools. Using KR-21 formulae, HGSAT yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.871 while using the cronbach alpha, HGMQ yielded 0.716 which were above the recommended threshold of 0.7. Data were analysed using t-test, ANOVA and ANCOVA. The findings indicated that CLS was not gender discriminative since it enhanced both students’ academic achievement in History and Government regardless of their gender. This study therefore recommends that History and Government teachers should blend the use of Cooperative Learning Strategy together with conventional teaching methods and TSC to in-service secondary school teachers on the use of CLS.



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The research aims to explore how Human Resource Management Department has responded to Covid -19.The study speaks on how companies have responded to pandemic and the challenges they faced during the crises. It explores how HR department of Hubli Dharwd companies support employees and how they are looking at employee wellbeing during pandemic.
Quantitative Research was adopted. The data was collected through survey using Questionnaire as a research instrument. Questionnaire was distributed to the HR Managers of Hubli and Dharwad based companies. The data was analysed using Excel. The research concentrates on Challenges the HR department is faced during covid - 19.
From the research we understood that most of the organizations were able to create safe environment to employees during pandemic. Human resource and top-level management were able to guide and involve the employees in the projects even through remote work, but some organizations failed in doing the same. Overall the study shows us that it’s important that the employees adhere to the rules and also the organizations should consider every aspect to motivate employees in the time of crisis.


The emergence of mHealth as an alternative access point for care and treatment is lauded by development agencies as ingenious innovation for bridging health care access for teenagers living with HIV/AIDS among detached communities like the islands of Lake Victoria. It is also presumed that mHealth transcends beyond teenagers’ concerns with location and unfriendly hours of operation of health facilities. The mHealth is alleged to increase privacy and confidentiality, reduce cost of service delivery, and loops over retrogressive cultural beliefs and attitudes exhibited by health care providers and caregivers, consequently increasing access to health information, care and treatment. Specifically, the study sought to establish the community-based health support systems that facilitate suitable utilization of mHealth by teenagers living with HIV from the island communities of Lake Victoria and its effect on treatment access. To support this study, the study was anchored to Theory of Reasoned Action. This was anchored to the cross-sectional study design, stratified sampling identified the psychosocial support groups of teenagers living with HIV. Probit Model was applied to the study. With a study population of approximately 409 in Ringiti, Remba, Rusinga, Mfangano and Mageta islands, questionnaires were administered to the 173 sampled teenagers living with HIV as unit of analysis, and a control group made up of 30 percent of the sample ascertained effect of mHealth on treatment access. Five focus group discussions and key informant interviews of 10 and 3 were held in each Island. The study adopted multiple linear regression analysis to determine the relationship between the community health support systems and utilization of mHealth information by teenagers living with HIV/AIDS in Island Communities of Lake Victoria, Kenya. The study results revealed that community-based health support systems had a significant effect on access to treatment by teenagers living with HIV/AIDS in Island communities of Lake Victoria. Consequently, this study provides organizations promoting access to treatment by teenagers living with HIV/AIDS through mHealth. The study recommended that government and organizations involved in HIV/AIDS related activities should adopt a culture of enhancing community-based health support systems. This could go a long way in ensuring there is improved access to treatment by teenagers living with HIV/AIDS in Island communities of Lake Victoria.