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Welcome To IJARR

International Journal of Advanced Research and Review (IJARR) is a peer reviewed, open access International Scientific ONLINE Journal dedicated for rapid publication (monthly) of high quality original research articles, case reports as well as review articles in all subjects. IJARR with an internationally recognized editorial board emphasizes on producing high quality research content.

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Latest Issue, February 2021

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The banking industry has in the past been faced with the challenges of obtaining comprehensive information on clients’ repayment history for use during the credit assessment process and eventual disbursement of loans. This has led to poor lending decisions as defaulters move from one bank to another to secure credit facilities. The general objective of this study was to assess the influence of credit reference bureaus on commercial banks credit lending decisions in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were; to investigate the influence of credit information sharing on commercial banks’ credit lending decisions in Kenya, to analyze the influence of borrower credit reports on commercial banks’ credit lending decisions in Kenya, to assess the influence of borrower future credit risk identification on commercial banks credit lending decisions in Kenya and to assess the influence of borrower repayment ability on commercial banks credit lending decisions in Kenya. The study was supported by credit rationing theory, modern portfolio theory, corporate risk management theory and agency theory. This research adopted a cross-sectional survey research design aimed to collecting large number of quantitative data at a point in time to address the formulated hypotheses. The target population was 41 commercial banks which in total have 51 branches in Mombasa County in Kenya. Census technique was used as a sampling procedure therefore all banks in Mombasa County were included in the study. The study collected data from all the respondents in the rank of branch managers, credit managers, and mortgage managers from all commercial banks in Mombasa County in Kenya. Primary data was collected by use of structured questionnaires which was distributed through the drop and pick method. Secondary data collected from various bank’s websites, in annual and published financial statements, in national newspapers, during annual general meetings and in-house magazines, important business disclosures in journals, manuals and the various firm’s documents were used to cross validate the primary data information collected Data analysis was by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. The study analyzed data through means, medians and standard deviations as descriptive statistics while correlation, regression and ANOVA analysis were the inferential statistics used. The data was presented by the use of tables and figures for purpose of giving a pictorial view of the results. The study provided a clear-cut mechanism of lending decisions and efficiency to the business fraternity in Mombasa. The study revealed that credit referencing, Credit information sharing, Borrower credit reports and Borrower repayment ability had a statistically significant influence on commercial banks’ credit lending decisions in Kenya as their R2 and Anove were 63.6% and F = 39.249, p = 0.000 respectively. The study recommended that commercial banks in Kenya should continue working closely with credit referencing and improvise real time reports sharing mechanisms so as to boost commercial banks’ credit lending decisions in Kenya. The study was important since it led to awareness in the commercial bank’s credit lending decisions. This study has a possibility of being used as a benchmark to borrowing and lending in future.


The study was focused on examining the influence of stakeholder’s collaboration on sustainable corporate responsibility on manufacturing companies affiliated to Kenya Association of Manufacturers in Mombasa County, Kenya. On stakeholder’s collaboration practice the correlation results showed that there was a strong positive correlation at 48.1% to sustainable CSR in companies affiliated to Kenya Association of Manufacturers in Mombasa County in Kenya. Regression results showed that the t value was -1.272 p = 0.211. The findings of this study are consistent with the stakeholder theory, which postulates that a firm needs to take cognizant of the various stakeholder interests. The customer is influenced by the firm’s ethical and ecological practices, consumer information, and quality assurance. This study also supports the social identity theory in that CSR improves customer loyalty by supporting consumer interests. The study results showed that t vales were -1.272 which was below the threshold required of 2.0. Therefore, null hypothesis that stakeholder’s collaboration practice has no significant influence on sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility of manufacturing companies affiliated to Kenya association of manufacturers in Mombasa County, Kenya was accepted. Thus, from the findings it was concluded that stakeholder’s collaboration practice has no significant influence on sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility of manufacturing companies affiliated to Kenya association of manufacturers in Mombasa County, Kenya.The study recommends that manufacturing companies should involve many stakeholders as possible to undertake corporate social responsibilities that as self-sustaining and a going concern.


Medhavi Sood* & Dr. Dweep Chand Singh

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Introduction: Parental cognition leads to parental behaviour which in turn affects the child. Meta-parenting, a type of parental cognition is being researched widely in the last 5 years. The association of meta-parenting and children outcome has never been made especially in adolescent population.
Aim: The study aims to assess difference between Meta-Parenting of mothers and fathers and assess adolescents correlated to meta-parenting.
Material & Method: A cross-sectional, correlational design was used, Sample consisted of 425 parents of adolescents aged 13-17 years (from class 8-12) from various schools and private tuition centres in Delhi. Tools used were Meta-parenting questionnaire (MPQ), Results & Discussion: Results suggested no difference between males and females on the meta-parenting scale. Adolescent age, class, and birth order correlated to meta-parenting subscales.
Conclusions: Meta-parenting is not dependent on parents' gender. Acknowledgments: The authors wish to acknowledge the participants of the study for taking out time to fill out the forms and Amity Institute of Behavioural Health and Allied Sciences for the encouragement.


The occurrence and seasonal variations of 37 pharmaceuticals belonging to 19 therapeutic classes in a sewage treatment plant (Alausa STP) and surface water in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria was investigated. Water samples were collected quarterly from April 2017 to January 2018. Among the targeted analytes, 26 compounds were detected. The ten most frequently detected compounds across the sampling locations were fexofenadine, carbamazepine, paracetamol, metformin, diazepam, cimetidine, codeine, sulfamethoxazole, atenolol and trimethoprim. The highest concentrations was observed for antibiotic and analgesic: sulfamethoxazole (129474 ngL-1) had the highest maximum concentration followed by paracetamol (111374 ngL-1). Over all, paracetamol had the highest mean concentration (18178 ngL-1) while sulfamethoxazole had the second highest mean concentration (11160 ngL-1). Cimetidine had the third highest maximum concentration of (95689 ngL-1) and mean concentration (10458 ngL-1). There were no specific spatial trends observed in this investigation and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the study locations were high throughout the catchment revealing that there are potentially many contributing sites. So there were statistically significant differences between the different site categories (Pharmaceutical manufacturing sites (PME), Alausa STP site (SE), Semi- Urban and Urban sites (GLM: χ2 (3) = 883.32, p <0.001).  There are seasonal variations in the number of analytes detected in each sampling station. The mean and median concentrations of all the pharmaceuticals detected in the Odo-Iya Alaro River are extremely higher in the peak of the dry season than any other season. Hence, there were statistically significant differences between the dry season, peak of dry season, the wet season and peak of the wet season ((GLM: χ2 (3) = 8.63), p<0.001). More pharmaceuticals were detected in the peak of the wet season (22) than the other seasons. 17 analytes were each found in the wet and dry seasons while 16 pharmaceuticals were detected at the peak of the dry season.  Pharmaceuticals are indispensable to human health although their usage and discharge into the aquatic environment may lead to ecological problems and antibiotic resistance. This investigation showed that pharmaceutical pollution of the aquatic environment is a major challenge in Nigeria and management efforts are needed to address this issue.


After two longest civil war, the Republic of South Sudan got independence through a Comprehensive Peace Treaty Agreement and Referendum. After independence the country resulting in serious neglect likes lack of infrastructure development, major destruction and displacement. More than 2.5 million people have been killed and more than 5 million people have been externally displaced and some are internally displaced. Ethnic cleansing, diseases spreading in refugee camps, rape of women in shelter camps. Hence, my research proposes, the nation is a vast oil dependent country not only in the African continent but also all over the world. The country is suffering from decline of oil prices, both the government of South Sudan and development partner closed the oil production area. Which currently 90% of all exports and 98% of public revenue of South Sudan. The country facing weak political so how can give 98% revenue that is the main reason. So my research finds out why all cease fire and peace deal have failed and which and what main political, social and economic reason for the problems of stability in South Sudan.