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Welcome To IJARR

International Journal of Advanced Research and Review (IJARR) is a peer reviewed, open access International Scientific ONLINE Journal dedicated for rapid publication (monthly) of high quality original research articles, case reports as well as review articles in all subjects. IJARR with an internationally recognized editorial board emphasizes on producing high quality research content.

We intend to build mutually beneficial and long-lasting relationships with our authors and provide them full support throughout the publishing and the post-publishing processes.


Latest Issue, August 2018

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Historically sectional style readings in architecture, instinctively brings out discussions on consistency discussions as well. Manys studies aim to find the origins of this consistency on various fields just as socio-cultural backgrounds or geographical codes. Even if architecture is always developed stong connections with socio-cultural and economical dynamics, trying to find origins merely on these fields whithout examining socio-cultural and politic power symbols behind, would be attenuating the representation area of architectural rhetoric thruogh ages.  According to this point of wiev, if architecture is to be considered as an expressional hyper-plane of socio-cultural dynamics, certain power symbols could create a solid level for reading historically sectional architectural contexts.
Taking prima facie indicators as a strating point, a reasoning discussion with semotic examination from superficial level to the bottom of the origins, becomes the main methodology of this reading.  Variable power symbols thrugh ages makes it possible to construct analogies between religional, plitical and economical codes which affected arctitectural discourses directl. While conections starts with abstracted metaphorical forms of religion based god-architect analogy from prehistoria to modern ages, main powers symbols seems to be religion based authorities commonly. Nevertheless industria revolution seems to be the breaking point as taking the mojor role of capitalism based socio-politic tendencies which changes socio-cultural needs  irriversably and turns the analogy of god-arhitect upwards towards postmodernism. 
This study aims to consider power symbols as an active component of architectural context and to methaporise major affects of power symbols on architectural styles through the history of architecture.


Dr. Abhidnya P. Gaikwad*, Dr. Meenal Gulve, Dr. Roshan Samuel, Dr. Swapnil Kolhe, Dr. Gayatri Aher, Dr. Kedar Apte

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Context: Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth substance by acid exposure not involving bacteria. To enhance the remineralization and to prevent further progression of dental wear, highly-concentrated fluoride applications and calcium rich compounds are recommended
Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride paste, organic and inorganic fluoride on the prevention of dental erosion.
Settings and Design: In vitro Randomised Control trial
Methods and Material: This in vitro experimental study 80 sound human premolar teeth (with no caries or fracture) were included. Buccal surfaces of the teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Afterwards, half the tooth surfaces were covered with adhesive tape to maintain reference surface and samples were then randomly divided into four groups of 20 each. Samples were randomly allocated into four groups. Group A was pretreated with GC tooth mousse plus 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. . Group C was pretreated with amine fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group D was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. 
Statistical analysis used: Unpaired ‘t’ test and ANOVA test .
Results: The erosion in both Groups A, B and C was less than the control group. The surface loss in GC tooth mousse plus and mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in GC tooth mousse plus group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. 
Conclusions: Amine fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion. 


More BOM teachers are leaving the profession for alternative career. This may be a sign of dissatisfaction among teachers thus the need to learn the factors affecting teachers job satisfaction. According to TSC, 2016 records at least 1000 teachers left for other fields. The study sought to establish the effect of reward system on employee’s retention among teachers in Nakuru Town East and West Sub-County. Specifically the study sought to determine the influence of recognition, pay-for-performance on BOM teacher’s retention in public primary schools in Nakuru Town East and West Sub-County. The research will be of great importance to education sector by identifying effective ways of improving teacher’s job satisfaction through implementation of accepted standards of quality work life. The study was guided by equity theory and agency theory. The study adopted descriptive research design. The unit of analysis was public primary schools in Nakuru Town East and West Sub County while the unit of observation was BOM teachers within the schools. According to BOM in the targeted schools there are 85 BOM teachers. Since the target population was small the researcher adopted census technique to incorporate all the targeted population. Questionnaires were used as primary data collection instruments. A pilot study was conducted on 9 respondents who were drawn from Naivasha primary school in Naivasha Sub-County. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 24 statistical software. The study adopted both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics constituted of means and standard deviations. The inferential statistics was scrutinized using the principal of multiple linear regressions. The study found out that the relationship between recognition and teachers` retention in public primary schools was moderately strong and statistically significant. The relationship between pay for performance and teachers` retention was established to be positive statistically significant. The researcher recommended that primary schools wishing to adopt a pay for performance system should have clear objectives for it. The objectives should be clearly spelt out and discussed with employees in an integrative and positive way. The researcher further recommended that BOM members should use effective communication in making BOM teachers understand the compensation system in schools. This will ensure that teachers are properly informed on the methods and reasons for compensation at any particular point in time; this will build the needed confidence and trust in the system and hence adequate support from the teachers. The researcher suggested that further studies should be conducted on factors influencing the quality of work life balance among public primary schools.


Withana Arachchilage EH, Lowe JN*

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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in both developed and developing countries in the world. It is an abnormal growth of cells in the body that can lead to death. The number of cases of cancer begins with mutations in DNA, which instruct the cells to grow and divide. Normal cells possess the DNA repair mechanism, but lacking this due to DNA mutations lead cells to grow and become cancerous (Hosseini, 2015). With the development of science, various treatment methods for cancer have been discovered. Among these treatment methods, chemotherapy, an accepted treatment method also carries some harmful effects. Intern, according to research diverse natural organisms including plants and microorganisms derived natural compounds have proved to be effective and safe as a treatment and management of cancer (Distefano, 2015). In the modern world most of the research work on cancer, based on plants and natural compounds derived therapeutic drugs and treatment methods. As a result, many natural compounds and their analogues have been identified as potent anti-cancer agents. Further, with emerging research and technology new anticancer properties of various natural products are being identified. Even though, there are several medicines available in the market to treat various types of cancer but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe (Salim, Chin and Kinghorn, 2008; Distefano, 2015).


The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing utilization of counseling services for nurses at the Nakuru County Teaching and Referral Hospital. The study specifically sought to explore the available counseling services for nurses at the Nakuru County Teaching and Referral Hospital. The study also sought to establish the attitude of nurses towards counseling services at Nakuru County Teaching and Referral Hospital. The study employed descriptive cross sectional design to determine the available counseling services for the nursing staff at the Nakuru County Teaching and Referral Hospital. The target population was drawn from 438 nursing staff and 51 counselors working at the Nakuru County Teaching and Referral Hospital. Purposive sampling method was used to obtain a sample from the target population comprising nursing staff and counselors at Nakuru County Teaching and Referral Hospital. Self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics was applied in data analysis. From the findings the researcher concluded that majority of nurses had experienced situations that required counseling. Despite experiencing situations that demand counseling, a portion of nurses had not gone through counseling. Some of the reasons that the nurses cited were lack of counseling services, others cited lack of time to attend counseling sessions and lack of opportunity to access counseling services. Some of the nurses were simply not aware of the available counseling services. Analysis of responses of the participating nurses showed that they use varieties of ways to control job stressful situations. From the findings the study recommended that more sensitization sessions should be carried out in hospitals to incorporate all the nurses. The study also recommended that more nurses should be hired to create a flexible working schedule; this will reduce job stressors upon nurses. A policy should be put in place to incorporate counseling sessions for nurses to equip them with skills that are required to cope with job stressors. Hospitals should improve control and dominance of nurses on job stressful situations, boosting positive self-controlling methods, creating an atmosphere of cooperation and support and paying attention to spiritual growth among nurses to cope better with the professional stress. Life skills activities should be introduced for the nurses. This will boost the delivery of quality nursing care.