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International Journal of Advanced Research and Review (IJARR) is a peer reviewed, open access International Scientific ONLINE Journal dedicated for rapid publication (monthly) of high quality original research articles, case reports as well as review articles in all subjects. IJARR with an internationally recognized editorial board emphasizes on producing high quality research content.

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Latest Issue, April 2018

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Abstract:

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the paranasal sinuses inflammatory disease among patients referred for brain CT as an incidental finding. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted on 338 patients diagnosed of sinusitis on computed tomography (CT) brain over a period of four years. Data such as patterns of the pathology, sex and age were collected using data capture sheet. Radiological reports were evaluated. Results: out of 338 patient’s records evaluated, 841 cases of sinusitis patterns of appearance on tomogram were identified. Out of 841 cases, 36.88% (n= 312) was mucosal thickening 30.26% (n = 256) was opacification and bony erosion was 15.96% (n = 130). Maxillary sinus was the most commonly affected 35.52% (n = 287) followed ethmoid 29.08% (n = 235). Age group 61 years and above was highest 35.43% (n = 298) and the least was 0 – 15 years 7.01% (n = 59). The male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with 57.4% (n = 194) male and 42.62 (n = 144) female. Out of the identified pathology patterns, 64.21% (n = 540) were found in male while 35.79% (n = 301) in female. Conclusion: Mucosal thickening and bony erosion were the most common and uncommon findings of patterns of sinusitis in this study respectively. Maxillary sinus was highly affected. Male preponderance was noted and young adults were commonly affected by the pathology.


2.CHANGE IN NEEDS OVER TIME

Sennur HİLMİOĞLU

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TURKEY

Abstract:

When we look at the ancient world and earlier, we see that the most important struggle of mankind is to survive against the wild nature and to recognize nature and self.This need has become as important as shelter, food and security for the primitive man in particular.In later periods, the developments recorded by mankind have not lost their importance and led to the creation of myths, religions, gods.It is seen that such a crucial effort inevitably influences the artistic activities of these human communities, and even to some thinkers, the origin of art creation.There are certain factors that influence the needs of the individual. It is seen that both the biological characteristics and the family environment are effective. As the culture of the society and the moral characteristics of the society change over time, the needs also change. According to this hierarchy of needs; need for achievement, need for independence, need for self-actualization, need for consume, need to believe and need to build are explained.The purpose of this study is to emphasize the necessity of people to believe and build from the past, starting from the formal and architectural features of temple constructions. As a result of all the research, it was aimed to examine how human beings' needs change over time. According to the examples given; as time and society change, so do the needs of women and men. There has been an increase in the need for women to achieve independence and achievement.


Abstract:

The removal of contaminants from wastewater is still far away from a satisfactory solution. In fact, the selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology should not be based uniquely on its efficiency, but should rather integrate environmental and economical aspects. Within this framework, the main objective of this study is the removal of various contaminants in wastewater including heavy metals (Cadmium and Copper), dyes (Methyl Red and Methylene Blue) and Phenolic compounds via an environmental friendly green technology method. In this study, grounded rice husk was examined as sorbent material which was chemically modified with Phosphoric acid (1.0 M) and was found to be effective in removing the contaminants. Batch studies were performed on synthetic wastewater at room temperature to evaluate the effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, initial concentration of the solution and adsorbent dose on removal efficiency of the pollutants. The experiment was also applied to treat two samples of industrial wastewater containing Cadmium and Carmoisine E122. The removal efficiency was found to be pH dependent. The removal efficiency was higher for Phenol and Methyl Red at low pH values and it was shown that the removal efficiency was higher for heavy metals and Methylene Blue at higher pH values. The equilibrium reached nearly in 2 hours for all the contaminants. Equilibrium sorption data were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Of the four adsorption isotherms, the R2 value was higher for D-R isotherm for the adsorption of Cadmium (0.979), Freundlich  isotherm for the adsorption of Copper (0.945), Freundlich isotherm for the adsorption of Methyl Red (0.994), Temkin isotherm for the adsorption of Methylene Blue (0.953) and Langmuir isotherm for the adsorption of Phenol (0.987). Adsorption data were well described and adsorption isotherm constants were determined from the respective adsorption isotherm equations. The present study analyzed the adsorption efficiency of rice husk and concluded that treated rice husk gave comparatively better adsorption efficiency. The treated rice husk can be implemented on large scale industrial applications after field studies.


Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder. Currently the number of cases of diabetes worldwide is estimate to be around 150 million. This number is predicted to double by 2025 (a prevalence rate of about 5.4%) with the greatest number of cases being expected in China and India.  A 34-fold excess is cardiovascular mortality was found in patients of diabetes with proteinuria whereas non-protienuria patients has only 4 folds   excess mortality compared with general population.


Abstract:

Fundamental changes in social structure reflect on lifestyles of individuals and accordingly on architecture, which could be perceived as an expression of lifestyles in plastic format.  Thus, the unbreakable relation between socio-cultural and socio-economical structure and architecture comes forth once again. In the period of change from modernism to postmodernism, a distinctive break off is observed from the principles adopted by the industrial revolution, which forms the point of origin for contemporary architecture.  
The new buildings constructed to meet the accommodation needs of a different migration group having different features in terms of level and education resulted in housing estates/collective group of apartments, which seem to be differing from squatter settlements, though unfortunately having contributed as negatively to the general framework within the urban sprawl.   The housing estates/collective group of apartments, essentially started rising with a modernist identification within European countries where a healthy Industrial Revolution was realized in terms of all levels, can be observed to display a postmodernist development in countries such as Turkey, which has got caught between modernity and postmodernity due to failure in keeping up with the prominent countries in this industrialization race.
In this study, simulative tendencies of new social theories emerged as a consequence of postmodern urban life is examined as well as the new housing developments addressing the new life style in which consumption habits are changed, and the similarities of these new housing developments are detected in terms of both their layout plans and their spatial configuration within the concept of uncanny valley theory. 


Abstract:

Nowadays contemporary firms undertake greater environmental responsibilities due to huge pressures from various stakeholders, and globally, societies are becoming increasingly aware of the negative consequences of environmental degradation on human health, ecosystems, and sustainability of life on earth. The notion of organizational citizenship behaviour toward environment (OCBE) emerged during the last two decades and employees may be not clear as their role in environmental improvements due to unsure of the formal rewards associated with them. Therefore, the necessity of human behavioural modifications to achieve pro environmental behaviours is well recognized by the scholars. However, to date scholars of organizational behaviour have been paid less attention in discussion about how to promote environmentally responsible organizations. Therefore, the general objective of this paper is to conceptualize the notions of OCBE and authentic leadership and validate it in Sri Lankan Context. Data were gathered through a survey by using a structured questionnaire from public sector utility organizations and 256 government workers in Sri Lanka. As per the discussion basically, two main criteria called reliability and validity have to be achieved to confirm the goodness of the measure. Internal reliability and composite reliability scales were commonly employed to asses construct reliability of the intended constructs. Convergent validity achieved through Average Variance Extracted and factor loadings. Discriminant validity evaluated by assessing the cross loadings, Fornel-Larcker criterion, and Heterotrait- Monotrait Ratio of correlation (HTMT). All validity and reliability indicators including items’ loadings, composite reliability, and average variance extracted (AVE), and square roots of the AVE and HTMT correlations have demonstrated high coefficients. Hence, findings demonstrated that the authentic leadership and OCBE constructs could be used for potential researches in Sri Lankan context. Using the PLS technique, this study provides significant contribution to knowledge by validating and conceptualizing the concepts.


Abstract:

This study considers the higher secondary students environmental awareness. A normative survey method was employed. A random sample of 500 Higher Secondary Students were selected. The environmental awareness test used to collect the required information. The results of the study reveal that both of environmental awareness of the students are below average. The school students should be involved in environmental programmes. The participatory approach can be adapted to develop environmental awareness among the school students. A similar study can be undertaken by taking students studying at different levels of education. Environmental Awareness of teachers working at different levels of education can be studied.


8.OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: A REVIEW

Pooja Saharan,  Neha Saini,  Aparna Sehgal

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HARIYANA

Abstract:

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder, characterized by repetitive unwanted obsessions and compulsions. The exact pathogenesis of OCD remains uncertain but multiple components such as hereditary/genetic, cognitive, biological, environmental and behavioral factors have been implicated. The aim of this review is to highlight the pathogenesis of OCD in differentiate it from adult onset OCD and outline its assessment and management.


Abstract:

Background: Mucocele is rare benign, expansile pseudocystic pathology of the nasal and paranasal sinuses. This study aimed at evaluating the patterns and prevalence of mucoceles among patients referred for cranio-facial computed tomography in Port Harcourt metropolis. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all the radiological reports of patients that underwent cranio-facial CT scan(n =1,443) between January, 2014 and August, 2017 using data capture sheet. The prevalence, and demographic variables were evaluated. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Out of the 1,443 subject records included in this study, only 2.6% (n = 38) had mucocele. The highest percent of mucocele was seen among subjects of age group 16-30years 1.11% (n = 16) followed by 31-45 years 0.77% (n = 11). Males had the highest percentage of mucocele 1.5% (n = 22) when compared to the female population 1.1% (n = 16).Nasal obstruction was the highest presenting symptom 32.69% (n = 17) and the least was toothache 1.92% (n = 1). Paranasal sinuses was highly involved 65.43% (n = 53) and the least was nasal involvement 12.35% (n = 10). Frontal sinus was the most common affected sinus 23.46% (n = 19) and the least was sphenoid sinus 6.17% (n = 5). Conclusion: The incidence of mucocele pathology was quite low in Port Harcourt. Young adults were more commonly affected by mucocele pathology with male preponderance. Frontal sinuses were the most affected paranasal sinus in this study.


Abstract:

Aims and Objective: Ultrasonographic determination of gallbladder volume in type 2 diabetics with 5 to 10 year duration and it’s comparison with a control group, and correlation of gallbladder volume in type 2 diabetics with autonomic neuropathy. Materials and Method: Fifty cases of diabetes mellitus and 50 healthy controls were recruited for the study. A detailed history and physical examination were recorded. Laboratory investigations done were - fasting and postprandial blood sugar, glycosylated haemoglobin, and serum lipid profile. Autonomic neuropathy was determined by using simple non-invasive bedside tests. Fasting gallbladder volume was measured by ultrasonography (calculated by ellipsoid formula). Results: The mean fasting gall bladder volume has been detected as 29.20±12.74 ml in diabetics with a minimum value of 10 and maximum value of 78 ml. and 17.50±2.206 ml in control subjects. When type 2 diabetics were subgrouped according to the presence of autonomic neuropathy, higher gallbladder volumes were seen in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Conclusions: Cholecystomegaly, to a significant degree, was documented in type 2 diabetics in the present study. It emphasized that duration of diabetes in these cases were 5 to 10 years. Gall bladder volume enlargement in type 2 diabetics as a whole is significantly correlated with severity of autonomic neuropathy (p<0.001).The mean gall bladder volume in type 2 female diabetics is higher than that found in type 2 male diabetics, but the difference in the gall bladder volume between the two sub groups is not statistically significant (p>0.05).


11.RESPONSE OF MARIGOLD CULTIVARS TO DIFFERENT HUMIC ACID LEVELS

Syed Muhammad Aslam, Taimur Khan, Shujaat Ali, Muhammad Nafees and Fazal Wahid

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PAKISTAN

Abstract:

An experiment on “Response of marigold cultivars to humic acid levels” was performed at Ornamental Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2015. The experiment was designed as Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement and the treatments were replicated thrice. Seedlings of marigold cultivars were transplanted on 9th October 2015 at a distance of 30 cm (Plant to Plant) and 60 cm (Row to Row). The seedlings of marigold cultivars (Orange, Yellow, Golden and White) were tested against four different levels of humic acid (0, 2, 4 and 6 kg ha-1). The experimental data were collected on days to flowering, number of flowers plant-1, flower diameter, flower fresh weight, flower dry weight, flower vase life, number of leaves, leaf area, plant height and number of branches-1. Humic acid levels significantly affected most of the growth parameters mentioned above. Best results were recorded on humic acid at the rate of 6 kg ha-1for  days to flowering (36 days), number of flowers plant-1 (30), flower diameter (9.1 cm), flower fresh weight (20.2 g), flower dry weight (1.8 g), flower vase life (13 days), number of leaves plant-1 (136.2), leaf area (14.3 cm2), plant height (34.8 cm) and number of branches plant-1 (15.9) were. Among cultivars yellow cultivar showed maximum flower diameter (10.5 cm), flower fresh weight (18.6 g), flower dry weight (1.6 g), number of leaves plant-1 (131.4), plant height (35.0 cm) and number of branches plant-1 (14.0). Orange cultivar showed minimum days to flowering (36 days), maximum number of flowers plant-1 (31.3), flower vase life (14) and leaf area (16 cm2). Humic acid levels and cultivars interaction was non-significant in all parameters. Marigold Cv. Yellow and Orange both performed well in the agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar valley. Humic acid level at the rate of 6 kg ha-1 proved superior in enhancing the growth of marigold and hence recommended for better production of marigold.


Abstract:

Contemporary business markets highly competitive, irrespective of the sector. Therefore, the demand for quality is the single most critical fact for companies to survive in the marketplace. The study investigated the influence of TQM implementation on customer satisfaction. Based on the study, this paper discusses the durability of materials used in the distribution of power and its connection to customer satisfaction in Uasin Gishu County. An exploratory study design was adopted. The study targeted employees of the Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC) (internal customers, 489) and customers being served by the KPLC (external customers, 32,750) in Uasin Gishu County. A sample of 30% of the employees was computed. This yielded 147 employees. The employees were then sampled using proportionate random sampling technique. To compute the sample of external customers, Reid andBoore’s1991 formula (since the population is greater than 10,000) was used to get 395 respondents. External customers were sampled using proportionate sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire. After data collection, responses from questionnaire items were cross-checked to facilitate coding and processing for analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer programme version 20.0. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed through coding themes and quotas that emerged. The themes emerging from secondary data were identified to augment primary data. Qualitative data were transcribed and organized into themes in order to check on their frequencies based on the research objectives. Analysed data were presented in form of cumulative frequency tables, percentages, charts and graphs. Although the respondents indicated that KPLC used durable materials in the supply of power, the same respondents indicated that power supply was generally ineffective. The study recommends that the company should establish quality management systems according to the requirement of ISO 9000 effectively for effective TQM implementation and for the success of the company. 


Abstract:

The study assessed the systemic barriers to ISO compliance at the Moi University, situated in the North Rift region of Kenya. It was guided by Scientific Management Theory as well as Contingency Theory. The study was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires supplemented by interview schedule guides. The target population for the study comprised 1,343 officers drawn from the various systems of the University. Stratified random and purposive sampling techniques were employed in selecting respondents. The sample size came to 404 officers who constituted 30% of the target population.  It included top management, Directors, Deans, Heads of Department, lecturers and administrative staff. Cumulative frequencies, percentages means and standard deviation were computed to help derive meaning from quantitative data. Qualitative data from interview schedule guide were transcribed, thematically classified and arranged before being reported in narrations and quotations. The findings were then presented in form of tables, charts, graphs and narratives. From the findings of the research, it emerged that, despite the various departments, schools and campuses of the Moi University addressing the existing barriers to compliance with ISO, the extent of their effort was insufficient. As such, the low compliance with the standards have compromised the quality of services on the institution. It was recommended that there should be continuous training for all staff members, including support staff, on the importance of quality services and how to achieve them particularly on ISO awareness and implementation. The study contributes to the body of knowledge in the area of quality management systems. 


Abstract:

Training in technical institutions has a large component of the learning processes taking place in workshops and laboratories with a high likelihood of encountering injuries. This study investigated perception on use of protective gears and safety practices by students in workshops and laboratories in Technical Institutions in Central Kenya. Perceptions, safety practices and factors affecting use of protective gears by students in selected Technical institutions safety were investigated. Stratified sampling was used to select three Technical Institutions in the study namely, Nyeri Technical, Mathenge Institute, and Rwika Technical. Qualitative data was collected using questionnaires to a sample of 119 respondents in the participating departments. In all the three institutions sampled in the study, there was compliance with use of safety gears namely, helmets, face masks, hand gloves, knee caps and gum boots. 79% of the respondents agreed that use of protective gears was important, 55% indicated that there were inadequate protective gears in their institutions. 56% confirmed using protective gear and 97.5% felt that there was need for training on use of protective gears. Respondents had a positive attitude towards the use of protective gears with 82.4% indicating that they were comfortable with the use of protective gears. 70% indicated that use of protective gears was affected by availability, knowledge and institutional policy on use of protective gears. Availability of signage indicating need for use of protective gears was identified as a safety measure. The study concluded that Students in Technical Institutions in Central Kenya understand the need for using protective gears. There is need for training institutions to avail protective gears to train students on safe use of protective gears and to put in place safety policies to ensure adherence to safety practices in workshops and laboratories.