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Welcome To IJARR

International Journal of Advanced Research and Review (IJARR) is a peer reviewed, open access International Scientific ONLINE Journal dedicated for rapid publication (monthly) of high quality original research articles, case reports as well as review articles in all subjects. IJARR with an internationally recognized editorial board emphasizes on producing high quality research content.

We intend to build mutually beneficial and long-lasting relationships with our authors and provide them full support throughout the publishing and the post-publishing processes.


Latest Issue, September 2018

Click On the Title to Read Abstract

The main aim of introducing Free Primary Education (FPE) in Kenya was to improve access to education through enhanced enrolment, retention, transition and completion rates. Abolition of school fees led to a significant improvement in enrolment but a decrease in frequency of assessment and other indicators of quality instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of free primary education on frequency of assessment in public primary schools in Nyandarua County, Kenya. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The target population was 1675 class teachers while the study sample comprised of 313 class teachers. Data was collected using the class teachers’ questionnaire.The face and content validity of the instrument was examined by experts from the Department of Curriculum, Instruction and Educational Management, Egerton University. The comments of the experts were used to improve the instrument before it was used to collect data. The class teachers’ questionnaire was piloted for reliability. It was deemed reliable as it yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.87. Data was analysed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The t-test was used to determine the difference in frequency of assessment before and after the introduction of free primary education. The findings of the study revealed that the frequency of assessment after the introduction of FPE was higher than that of before the introduction of FPE. The results also revealed that the difference between frequency of assessment between the two epochs was statistically significant at .05 level.  It was thus concluded that FPE positively affects frequency of assessment which in turn enhances quality of instruction.


The objective of this study is to explore the social consequences of Sri Lankan migration to Italy. The study is based on a primary survey conducted in a district where most of the Sri Lankan migrants to Italy are observed. The reference period of migration for the study was from 1985 to 2014. The total number of migrants observed from 150 households during this period were 320 persons. This study showed that the migrants and their families have improved their economic status because of the emigration to Italy but the social consequences have been very undesirable. The study found that a significant proportion of Sri Lankans had emigrated through illegal means. The family bond between the migrants and their immediate families has been very weak. Although migration may assist in achieving financial stability, this study showed that the absence of a parent can be detrimental to a child’s social and psychological development. This study also found that migration of their adult children, especially who are married and leave their immediate families behind has a significant impact on the elderly parents, especially in relation to their physical and mental well-being.


There have been persistent complaints regarding public service delivery in Kenya. Though there are several factors to which poor service delivery in the public service is attributed, there is hitherto scarcity of empirical evidence linking strategic performance appraisal to service delivery. In this regard, the main objective of this study was to determine the influence of strategic Performance appraisal on service delivery among civil servants working with the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government in Nakuru North Sub-County, Kenya. The specific objectives included examining the influence of target setting and performance appraisal training on service delivery. The study was guided by the balanced scorecard and the dynamic theory of service delivery. A survey research design was adopted. The target population constituted all civil servants in Kenya. Accessible population comprised of the 283 civil servants working with the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government and based at Nakuru North Sub-County. A sample of 96 respondents was drawn from the accessible population using stratified random sampling technique. The study used a research questionnaire in data collection. A pilot study was conducted before the main study with the view of assessing both the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire. Data analysis involved data screening, data coding, data analysis, and interpretation and discussion of results of analyses. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 24 tool was employed in the analysis. Data analysis involved both descriptive and inferential statistics. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study findings were presented in tables. It was established that target setting was the most important aspect of strategic performance appraisal that influenced service delivery. Strategic performance appraisal was concluded to be of significant importance to enhancement of service delivery at the Ministry. The study recommended that the Ministry and other related government ministries should at all times ensure timeliness, efficiency and reliability of the services they deliver to the members of the public.


Private Banks are playing an increasingly important role towards the development of Bangladesh. As a service providing organization, banks’ performances are dependent on their workforce as identifying high-quality human resources has become a challenge in this sector. That’s why the banks are now putting increased emphasizes on human resource planning practices. Human resource planning is a critical part of human resource management carries huge importance to run a bank efficiently. Every organization needs a workforce suitable for its tasks in order to reach its business aims. The objectives of the study are to assess and evaluate existing human resource planning process and provide some suggestions that can help the banks of Bangladesh for utilizing human resources in order to achieve competitive advantage. After the analysis, there are findings which show that this bank is not following such human resource planning process thoroughly although there is enough scope in the bank for doing that. In order to avoid any sudden setback in future, few measures have been discussed at the end of this study.


Njoroge David Kimemia, Dr. Walter K. Njoroge, Dr. Isaac W. Mwangi

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The study sought to establish a photo cell which can reduce use of fossil fuels and in turn reduce on air pollution and climate change. The experimental design involved preparation of various ratios of titanium dioxide: graphite /iodine/KI mixtures in each respective layer. Optimization was carried out by varying the mass of the constituents of each layer while maintaining the others constant to obtain the highest current-voltage outputs. The study investigated the effect of the thickness of TiO2 (the photo active layer) and the electronegative material layers on current-voltage output of the fabricated solar cell. The optimum electricity generation was observed at the ratio of TiO2/ Cx: I2: KI as 0.4: 0.3: 0.17: 0.01 g respectively. Results show a very sharp increase in potential from a molar ratio of 0.1g of TiO2 to 0.4 g producing a voltage of 0.73 V after which there was a steep decrease from 0.73 V to 0.22 V with a short change of 0.1 g. Therefore, the molar ratio of (0.4: 0.2: 0.12) generated a reasonably high voltage of 0.73 V indicating that these values were almost the optimized ratios. There was a linear increase in potential up to a molar ratio of 0.5 g after which a uniform plateau was observed. Finally, the Variation of graphite-CX molar ratio was investigated at constant iodine (0.1 g) and TiO2 (0.5 g). The results showed a gradual increase in voltage from a molar ratio of 0.1g to 0.2 g generating a potential of 0.2 V, after which there was a gradual decrease from 0.2 V to 0.09 V with a change 0.2 g of graphite. In conclusion, the results obtained on optimization of a blank cell, the open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC) of 0.083 V and 0.33µA were respectively obtained. These values were low confirming that a conducting medium was necessary for the migration of the generated electrons. The research generally recommends that there is need to employ improved technology to reduce presence of air packets which creates air gaps.


Due to lack of defined transition structures transition period in many of the evangelical churches becomes a period which produces considerable anxiety, confusion, ambiguity, and uncertainty. Therefore the study sought to determine assessing factors affecting pastoral leadership transitions among evangelical churches in Molo Sub-County. The study was guided by the following specific objectives. To find out the pastoral leadership transition mechanism in place in the evangelical churches in Molo Sub-County and to investigate the extent of the problem regarding pastoral leadership transition within evangelical churches in Molo Sub-County. The finding of the study is of great importance to various stakeholders. First the study is of help policy maker in the church to formulate policies to address challenges facing the leadership transition and enact best policies and procedures in leadership transition. The study employed a descriptive cross sectional research design. The study target population was pastors and church leaders from evangelical churches in Molo Sub-County.  The study used both primary and secondary source of data. The questionnaires contained both open ended questions and closed ended questions. Closed ended questions allow specific types of responses provided by the researcher while open ended type, the respondents stated responses as they wish. Open-ended questionnaire was used to get opinion from the study subjects. After analysis data was presented in tables due to ease of interpretation information presented in tables. From the findings the researcher concluded majority of churches have no constitution, but some of the churches have formal leadership structures for those who have structure the structures are not effective in leadership transition. Criteria used by churches in leadership transition include negotiated leadership, promotion of juniors, making appointments and through vetting but majority of the churches promote their juniors during leadership succession. Consideration made by churches during pastoral leadership include age, education level, year of service and commitment of the aspire but majority of churches consider education level during pastoral leadership. From the conclusion the researcher recommended that church leadership should establish a criteria for leadership transition which ensure smooth leadership transition, this will reduce chances of existence of splitter groups.