Welcome To IJARR

International Journal of Advanced Research and Review (IJARR) is a peer reviewed, open access International Scientific ONLINE Journal dedicated for rapid publication (monthly) of high quality original research articles, case reports as well as review articles in all subjects. IJARR with an internationally recognized editorial board emphasizes on producing high quality research content.

We intend to build mutually beneficial and long-lasting relationships with our authors and provide them full support throughout the publishing and the post-publishing processes.

Latest Issue, July 2017

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Tiebout (1956) and Oates (1977) work contributed immensely to the need to decentralize across the developing world. Tiebout (1956) exudes that decentralization has salutary effects on the public sector because autonomy at this level creates competition among sub national jurisdictions to provide the most efficient policies for their electorates. Every government of the world would want a fall in inflation, unemployment, stable exchange rate, balanced budget, possibly low interest rate, all indices of a robust economy. But the realization of a better economy has not been forth coming especially for federal developing countries of the world (Wibbels 2000, Tanzi, 1996). This paper examines “fiscal federalism” its apparent failure and why it is very much still being practiced throughout the world especially in the developing countries. In doing this previous theoretical overview on the issues, especially Wibbles (2000) experiment was presented as an illustration to support the evidence presented by other researchers. It also in general term examines fiscal federalism in a general normative terms and uses it to try to find the puzzle behind the continuing practice of fiscal federalism across the globe especially in  developing countries even though it has been adjudged to be a failure especial in federal developing countries (Wibbles 2000). This paper is purely based on desk research using secondary sources of information. It is hoped the exposition of this nature on fiscal federalism would provide a platform for countries practicing or thinking of the system a good psyche to reflect on their decision.


This research work explains the synthesis of chitosan-silver oxide nanocomposite and medicinal herb were loaded by swelling method.  The synthesised nanocomposites were characterised by UV-VIS, FTIR spectroscopy.  The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results showed that particles were spherical in the size range of 50-100 nm.  The antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was assessed by agar well diffusion method.  Our studies proved that the chitosan as biomaterial based nanocomposites containing silver oxide has an excellent antibacterial activity. 


Genomic conflict arises when some selfish genetic elements such as transposons, homing endonucleases, driving chromosomes, heritable microorganisms etc. in the eukaryotic genome are transmitted at a rate much higher than expected, regardless of the effect on fitness of the host. Conflict may occur between genomes (including paternal-maternal and parental-zygotic conflicts) or within genomes (between cytoplasmic and nuclear genes or sex chromosomes and autosomes). In the present article, we will focus on evolutionary role of genomic conflict behind the unexpected complexity of mechanisms of sex determination, diversity of genome, speciation and extinction of eukaryotic populations among plants and animals.


Toxic Microcystis, a cyanobacterium distributed worldwide. Microcystins (MCs) are potent hepatotoxins occurs in free or cell bound form in eutrophic Lake, reservoir and marine water. Microcystis act by inhibiting the serine/threonine protein phosphatases 1, 2A (PP1 and PP2A) and 2B, essential types of enzymes frequently involved in maintenance of cell architecture and cell cycle regulation. This paper reviews the current knowledge about the toxicity of MCs, with regards to fishes, birds, amphibians, mammals and plants. Exposure of MCs leads to the oxidative stress and excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Beside these MCs promotes to mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, cytoskeleton disruption and DNA damage. MCs are reported as carcinogenic and apoptotic agent. MCs bioaccumulates in various tissues of aquatic organisms as well as its biomagnification cause toxicity.


Coming to the literal interpretation of Insurgent organization and belligerent organization the system of government running parallel to the government of the State and which does not purport to the legal identification of the same and when the same recognised by the State comes under the purview of the belligerent organization. Examples in support of the same are put in the research paper pertaining to LTTE, FARC-EP, CPN-M which need to be explained concerning their recognition status and involvement of Human rights law in the same.
Insurgent Organization
The insurgent forces in Iraq, Status of LTTE, Guantemela, Syria and Libya whether all these existing groups form part of it will be recognise the status of the Insurgent Organization.
Belligerents Organization
The country will recognize the belligerent's lawful right to wage war and could gain recognition as a state. Example: Syria recognizes the Iraqi force as a belligerent force then recognizes territory already controlled by them. 
Research Question
1. What will be the rights and obligation when the belligerent status would come into recognition?
2. Can there be effectiveness in the governance if the Insurgent group are recognised and forms a part of de-jure government?