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International Journal of Advanced Research and Review (IJARR) is a peer reviewed, open access International Scientific ONLINE Journal dedicated for rapid publication (monthly) of high quality original research articles, case reports as well as review articles in all subjects. IJARR with an internationally recognized editorial board emphasizes on producing high quality research content.

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Latest Issue, April 2017

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The heavy organic contents most especially lipids, in abattoir wastewaters discharged into receiving rivers, are higher than the WHO permissible level for discharge into water bodies. Hence the potency of lipolytic bacterial isolates and consortium in the effective biodegradation of lipid-rich wastewater from abattoirs was investigated. The lipolytic bacterial isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The consortium used in the treatment was formulated comprising Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The efficiency of the individual isolates and consortium treatment was measured by the chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), lipid content and pH variation analyses. Within 18days of treatment under aerobic condition, the BOD values were reduced from 1075.40 mg/l to <20 mg/l for the consortium, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated wastewaters while >20 mg/l for Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and the control; the COD values were reduced from 1904.30 mg/l to >200 mg/l for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus subtilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae while < 200mg/l for the consortium; lipid content reduced from 17006 mg/l to <20 mg/l for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and consortium, and >20 mg/l for others. The pH values of the treated media varied during treatment period experiencing a fall and rise. The lipolytic isolates have desirable features that could be favourably exploited for the treatment of lipid-rich wastewater from abattoir. This lipolytic consortium has proved to be beneficial for bringing down the overall organic load of this wastewater.


*P.Srinivasa Subrahmanyam, A.V.Dattatreya Rao and S.V.S.Girija

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Andhra Pradesh, INDIA


In many scientific experiments the data have been observed exhibiting periodic or cyclic behaviour. To deal with such data and to perform statistical analysis many Circular models were developed from the existing linear distributions by adopting variety of techniques like wrapping, inverse stereographic projections, rising sun function etc. Also a good number of circular models for linear life testing models were constructed using the technique of wrapping. In this article an attempt is made to construct a circular model for the three-parameter Weibull–Pareto distribution namely ‘New Weibull–Pareto Distribution’ using the method of wrapping. The Probability density function, distribution function and characteristic function are derived for this Wrapped New Weibull Pareto Distribution. The Trigonometric moments and through them some of the important population characteristics for this wrapped New Weibull Pareto Distribution are computed and tabled.


Fatima Iqbal, Sikander Ali* and Sobia Rizwan

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Diabetes is also associated with the development of renal complication such as chronic kidney disease, Retinopathy and Diabetic Nephropathy. Although Albuminuria is widely being used as a marker of Glomerular and Tubular damage and has attained the current gold status in diagnosis but other biomarkers have been found that indicate renal damage prior to albuminuria and also predict the progression of different stages of diabetes and progression of normoalbuminuria toward microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. This review gives an overview of Tubular damage markers, Glomerular damage markers, Oxidative stress markers and Proteomic markers that can be more specific and sensitive and act as early markers than Albumin.


Population ageing is a common feature of many developed and developing countries in the world today. This phenomenon is occurring mainly due to the decline in fertility and mortality and resultant increase in the life expectancy which is accompanied by socio-economic developments of the country. The ageing of the Sri Lankan population will have a major impact on the organization and delivery of health care. Of particular importance, will be the shift from acute to chronic illnesses and the likely growing shortage of health care workers, especially nurses and para-professionals. As the length of life and number and proportion of older persons increase, a central question is whether this population ageing will be accompanied by sustained or improved health, an improving quality of life, and sufficient social and economic resources. Therefore, this study attempts to identify the factors influencing healthcare demand for the elderly population in Sri Lanka. This paper is based on widely used Michal Grossman’s economic model for the demand of health where healthcare is treated as an input for the production of health. If health of the elderly has to be improved, then demand for healthcare of the elderly needs to be understood properly. For young-old female group, expenditure on drugs has been the most significant factor which influences the demand for health care same as in the case of young-old male group.  Method of treatment, health status and cost per visit for medical treatment can be viewed as major determinants of demand for healthcare among old-old women. Amongst all, method of medical treatments of old-old females is having stronger relationship with number of visits for medical consultations. The present study adds another dimension to the Grossman Model by treating health status of the elderly and associated healthcare costs as two major significant variables that affect their demand for healthcare services. In Sri Lankan context, it appears that expenditure on drugs is the most concerned factor among the elderly when all the healthcare costs are taken in to account.


Kalyani Dahake, Prof. A. D. Bhoi

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Maharashtra, INDIA


In 21st century, business trends are changing and it is moving to digital age. People prefers digital services over their traditional counterparts such as digital banking, digital shopping, over traditional ones. Even digital services offers huge benefits to businesses such as automation in processes, increasing speed and quality of service, costs saving, better customer experience, centralize and fault-free management. In this system digital restaurant management system is proposed which offers huge benefits over traditional restaurant system. Basically we are going to implement automated restaurant management system which will help customers to place an order using tablets or mobile phones, once order is ready it will be served and bill will be generated by the system. The wireless application on mobile devices provide a means of convenience, improving efficiency and accuracy for restaurants by saving time, reducing human errors and real-time customer feedback. This initiative will help school/college/university campuses to go digital. The implementation of this system will be done using android application for Tablets and it helpful for restaurants management system.


Taravusa Hamandishe*, Jaya Shukla, Patrick Hitayezu

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Nairobi, KENYA


This study models the demand for money in Rwanda and its determinants for the period 1996 to 2013 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework. It investigates the relationship between monetary aggregates M2 and M3, and real final consumption expenditure, real gross capital formation and real exports, inflation rate, interest rate, exchange rate and financial innovation. The study uses disaggregated components of GDP as scale variables to separate their effects on money demand. Furthermore, the study investigates the stability of the money demand function in Rwanda using the CUSUM and CUSUM Squared tests. The calculated F-statistic for the M2 model is 4.835 which is above the upper bounds of the critical values of the bounds test at all levels of significance while the F-statistic for the M3 model is 3.885 and above the upper bounds at 5% significance level. These empirical results prove the existence of a cointegrated relationship between M2 (M3) and the explanatory variables real final consumption expenditure, inflation, exchange rate and financial innovation. The study finds that the long-run elasticities of real final consumption expenditure, inflation, financial innovation   and the exchange rate are positive. The coefficient of 1.028 for final consumption expenditure is highly elastic and shows that final consumption expenditure is a key driver of the demand for M2. On the other hand, an exchange rate long-run elasticity of 1.068 indicates that a shock of Rwanda’s exchange rate has a more than proportionate impact on the demand for M3. A positive exchange rate coefficient shows the dominance of the wealth effect over the substitution effect in situations of exchange rate depreciation. A positive long-run semi-elasticity of the inflation rate proves the importance of the transactions motive to economic agents’ portfolio decisions. Financial innovation has not yet offered Rwandans alternative financial assets as indicated by its positive influence on money demand. The results of the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests reveal that the M2 and M3 money demand functions are stable between 1996 and 2013. Thus, M2 is still an appropriate target for monetary policy in Rwanda while M3 can also be targeted with equivalent effectiveness. Complimentary fiscal policies that focus on final consumption expenditure are needed since final consumption expenditure is a key driver of money demand in Rwanda.